Years of UN peacekeeping efforts

The specialized agencies The International Labour Organization (ILO) formulates policies and programs to improve working conditions and employment opportunities, and defines

Years of UN peacekeeping efforts

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, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and Egypt.

Members of the UN Security Council, including both the United States and the Soviet Union, voted for a series of resolution concerning Iraqs aggression. One UN resolution demanded Iraqs unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. Other resolutions placed an international embargo on trade with Iraq and authorized UN members to use force if Iraqi troops did not leave Kuwait by January 15, 1991. As the January deadline neared, members of Congress debated whether or not to authorize the president to send US troops into combat in the Persian Gulf. Both houses voted in favor of the war resolution. [ ]

The Gulf War had far greater significance to the emerging post-cold war world than simply reversing Iraqi aggression and restoring Kuwait. In international terms, we tried to establish a model for the use of force. First and foremost was the principle that aggression cannot pay. If we dealt properly with Iraq, that should go a long way toward dissuading future would-be aggressors. We also believed that the US should not go it alone, that a multilateral approach was better. [ ]

 

5.2.2. UNIKOM Establishment

On 3 April 1991, the Security Council adopted resolution 687 (1991), which set detailed conditions for a cease-fire and established the machinery for ensuring implementation of those conditions. By resolution 687 (1991) the Council established a demilitarized zone along the border between Iraq and Kuwait, to be monitored by a UN observer unit.

On 9 April 1991, the Security Council adopted resolution 689 (1991) which approved the Secretary General's plan for the establishment of the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM). The UNIKOM advance party arrived in the area on April 1991. UNIKOM was established to monitor the Khawr 'Abd Allah and the DMZ set up along the border between Iraq and Kuwait, and to observe any hostile or potentially hostile action mounted from the territory of one State to the other.

The mandate was expanded in February 1993 by Security Council resolution 806 (1993), with the addition of an infantry battalion, to: take physical action to prevent, or redress, small scale violations of the DMZ and of the boundary between Iraq and Kuwait; and problems arising from the presence of Iraqi installations and citizens and their assets in the DMZ on the Kuwaiti side of the border. Since the demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary in May 1993 by the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission, and the relocation of Iraqi citizens found to be on the Kuwaiti side of the border back into Iraq, the situation along the DMZ has been calm.

From the Security Council on down, nearly every UN diplomat, along with officials from many other countries, will not stop repeating their mantra: They want full and unfettered access to all sites in Iraq where the inspection team suspects weapons of mass destruction are hidden. And that is precisely what Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein has refused to do, for the seven years that the inspection regime has been in force.

President Clinton has managed to put the United States on both sides of the diplomatic fence, repeatedly insisting America is making every effort to avoid violence, but is ready to use U.S. aircraft and cruise missiles to pound Iraq into submission if necessary.

The United States has assembled an armada in the Persian Gulf consisting of 30,000 soldiers, sailors, pilots and Marines, 20 warships, and more than 400 attack and support aircraft. Although it doesnt compare to the huge multinational force that went to war with Iraq in 1991, neither does the coalition.

So far, only Britain and Canada have joined the United States in sending forces to the area. Most of the nations that supported the attack in 1991 seem to feel that a military solution is too unsubtle a tool for such a delicate diplomatic goal, and that the Iraqi people, already suffering under UN sanctions, do not need to endure another baptism by fire.

The demonstrations - never spontaneous and always state-organized - quickly became tedious affairs, with the same posters, the same chants, the same stunts.

What's more, the UN Security Council more than doubled the amount of oil Iraq can sell over six months in order to buy food, medicine and other goods for its people suffering from devastating sanctions imposed when Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. At that time to put pressure on Iraqi forces to withdraw, the United States and the UN voted to place an embargo on the purchase of Iraqi oil. The resulting drop in oil supplies quickly led to higher prices at gas stations all across the country.

The vote was unanimous in the 15-member body. The new programwhich raises the permitted oil revenue from $2 billion to $5.256 billiondoes not go into effect until Annan evaluates and approves an Iraqi plan for how the goods should be distributed.

Iraq has expressed irritation over the plan and delayed the previous versions of it, citing what it called infringements on its sovereignty. UN officials insist on the right to strictly monitor the aid given under the plan to make sure it reaches those who need it.

U.S. opinion polls show support for attacks on Iraq remains strong, hovering in the 60 percent range, but a disastrous “town hall” meeting in Ohio on Wednesday suggested it was equally fragile.

State Department spokesman James P. Rubin said families were not being ordered to leave Israel and Kuwait, but that they were being allowed to do so over concerns they may consider it prudent.

Iraqis have in the past threatened to attack both Israel and Kuwait in the event that Iraq is attacked. The United States this weekend is beefing up forces in Kuwait, and Israel has been urgently distributing gas masks.

“The probability of Iraq resorting to the use of chemical or biological weapons is remote, but it cannot be excluded,” Rubin said.

U.S. officials acknowledge that any attack on Iraq could hit hard at civilians there.

As a result of UNICOM work the following data concerning Iraqi military arsenal were received.

MissilesUN verified as destroyedUN believes may exist.Missiles8172Warheads3045Launchers and launch pads750Chemical WeaponsMunitions (filled and empty)38,53731,658Precursor chemicals3,000 tons4,000 tonsEquipment for production516459Biological WeaponsAlthough the Al Hakam factory, capable of producing anthrax and botulinum toxin, was raised, these and other agents have not been accounted for.

5.2.3. Blitzkrieg1

The events that took place December 16, 1998 shocked the mankind. US and British forces launched a “strong, sustained” series of airstrikes against Iraq early Thursday, targeting military and security installations throughout the country. Pentagon sources said about 200 cruise missiles were fired from ships and manned fighter bombers in the first wave of what will be an “open-ended attack, designed to degrade Iraqs ability to produce nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Clinton accused Hussein of failing to live up to his commitment to allow unrestricted access to UN weapons inspectors. This is how chief CNN International Correspondent Christiane Amanpour reported from a rooftop in downtown Baghdad: “An orange plume of smoke wafted over the city after one of the loudest bursts.” Allied missiles struck more than 50 separate targets” during the first wave of bombing that began overnight on Wednesday.

The military strikes which came at night followed a roughly 14-month period during which Baghdad officials periodically said they would no longer cooperate with the weapons inspectors. During that time, Baghdad also repeatedly demanded that crippling international sanctions, imposed after Iraqs invasion of Kuwait prior to the Gulf War, be lifted. The most recent escalation in the ongoing weapons standoff came in early November. At that time, Western powers threatened military strikes against Iraq. The threat was removed on November 14, when Baghdad agreed to cooperate fully with the weapons inspectors. But, US and British officials warned Baghdad that future airstrikes could come without warning should Iraqi leadership again refuse to cooperate with UNSCOM. To back up their threat, Western powers left in place the military might they had positioned in the Persian Gulf, within striking distance of Iraq. It was that military weaponry that was used on Thursday to conduct the strikes against Iraq. A stray missile from the allied attack on Iraq crashed into a southwestern Iranian border city Khorramshahr causing no casualties but prompting a strong diplomatic protest from Tehran.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Henry Shelton said the sites hit during the first bombing wave included weapons of mass destruction and barracks belonging to the Iraqi Republican Guard. US and British officials have said they will continue bombing Baghdad until they have achieved their goal which is not to destabilize the regime but to decrease his capacity to threaten his neighbours.

World communitys response was not unanimous. Many Russian politicians expressed their negative attitude to the bombing. Boris Yeltzin met with Evgeni Primakov, Russian Prime-minister, Nikolai Bordyuzha, Security Council secretary and Anatoly Kvashnin, General Staff commander where he claimed that Russia would demand conducting the UN Security Council summit to consider the situation in Iraq. Egor Stroyev, Federation Council chairman said that the US and British bombardment of Iraq is a strike not on Iraq but on public opinion and above all on UNO. Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov expressed his point of view saying that military action ceasing would allow to renew the poli

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