Students Scientific Society «Integral»
ESSAY: YEARS OF UN PEACEKEEPING EFFORTS
Section: English Language
Author: Sokolova Olga, School #5, Form 11A
Supervisor: Gorina Elena Vasilievna
English Teacher, 1st category,
School #5 with extensive English learning
- Origin of the UNO3
- The way UN works4
- Main bodies4
- Security Council activity6
- UN activity8
- UN peacekeeping missions8
- UN and human rights12
- UN humanitarian assistance to developing countries14
- UN activity in the sphere of disarmament15
- The problem of Iraqi military arsenal16
5.2.1 Iraq/Kuwait conflict17
5.2.2. UNIKOM Establishment18
Most people are familiar with the work of the United Nations in peacekeeping or in delivering humanitarian assistance to a far-off country. But the many ways in which the UN has a direct impact on all our lives, everywhere in the world, is not always so well-known.
Now that world mass media reflect the news about the UNO in detail, it is very challenging to know different points of view, and I took an interest in this problem. I heard about UN activity but didnt reach the main point, like the majority of my coevals, who are familiar with the events that concern the UNO but dont fully understand the essence of them. UN activity in preserving peace has attracted me most of all. The arms race, disputes between nations, wars, military conflicts have turned into the real danger to the mankind. I think that people must stop killing each other and end this violence. Ive chosen the UN peacekeeping missions and especially in Iraq as a specific example of UNs work. It is very urgent nowadays.
II. ORIGIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Day in, day out, the UN and its family of organizations work together and individually to protect human rights; promote the protection of the environment; help the advancement of women and the rights of children; fight epidemics, famine, poverty. Throughout the world, the UN and its agencies assist refugees and help improve telecommunication; deliver food aid and protect consumers; combat disease and help expand food production; make loans to developing countries and help stabilize financial markets. UN agencies define the standards for safe and efficient transport by air and sea, work to ensure respect for intellectual property rights and coordinate allocation of radio frequencies. The UN's work has a long-term impact on the quality of our lives.
The name "United Nations" was devised by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of January 1, 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the representatives of 50 countries at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, which met at San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on June 26, 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on October 24 each year.
III. THE WAY UN WORKS
The United Nations is an organization of sovereign nations. It provides the machinery to help find solutions to international problems or disputes, and to deal with pressing concerns that face people everywhere.
It does not legislate like a national parliament. But in the meeting rooms and corridors of the UN, representatives of almost all countries of the world -large and small, rich and poor, with varying political views and social systems -have a voice and vote in shaping the policies of the international community.
The UN has six main bodies listed below. All are based at UN Headquarters in New York, except the International Court of Justice, which is located at the Hague, Netherlands.
In addition, 14 specialized agencies, working in areas as diverse as health, finance, agriculture, civil aviation and telecommunications, are linked together through the Economic and Social Council. The UN and its specialized agencies constitute the UN system. Main bodies of the UN are: the General Assembly, Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the Secretariat.
3.1 Main Bodies
The General Assembly
The General Assembly, sometimes called the nearest thing to a world parliament, is the main deliberative body. All 185 Member States are represented in it, and each has one vote. Decisions on ordinary matters are taken by simple majority. Important questions require a two-thirds majority.
The Assembly holds its regular sessions from mid-September to mid-December. Special or emergency sessions are held when necessary. When the Assembly is not in session, its work goes on in special committees and bodies.
The Assembly has the right to discuss and make recommendations on all matters within the scope of the UN Charter - the Organization's founding document. It has no power to compel action by any Government, but its recommendations carry the weight of world opinion. The Assembly also sets policies and determines programs for the UN Secretariat, directs activities for development, and approves the UN budget, including peacekeeping operations. Occupying a central position in the UN, the Assembly receives reports from other organs, admits new Members and appoints the UN Secretary - General.
The Economic and Social Council
Working under the authority of the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council coordinates the economic and social work of the UN and related specialized agencies and institutions. The Council has 54 members, and meets for a one-month session each year, alternating between New York and Geneva. The session includes a special meeting at the level of ministers to discuss major economic and social issues.
The Council oversees UN activities and policies promoting economic growth in developing countries, administering development projects, promoting the observance of human rights, and fostering international cooperation in areas such as housing, family planning, environmental protection and crime prevention.
The Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council was established to ensure that Governments responsible for administering trust territories take adequate steps to prepare them for self-government or independence. The task of the Trusteeship System was completed in 1994, when the Security Council terminated the Trusteeship Agreement for the last of the original 11 UN Trusteeships - the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), administered by the United States. All Trust Territories have attained self-government or independence, either as separate States or by joining neighbouring independent countries. The Trusteeship Council will now meet as and where circumstances so demand.
The International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice (also known as the World Court) is the main judicial organ of the UN, settling legal disputes between member states and giving advisory opinions to the UN and its agencies. It consists of 15 judges, elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. Only countries may be parties in cases brought before the Court. If a country does not wish to take part in a proceeding, it does not have to do so (unless required by special treaty provisions), but if it accepts, it is obligated to comply with the Court's decision.
The Secretariat works for the other five organs of the UN and administers their programs. With a staff of some 8,900 under the regular budget, working at headquarters and all over the world, it carries out the day-to-day work of the UN. At its head is the Secretary - General.
He plays a central role in peacemaking, both personally and through special envoys. The Secretary - General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which appears to threaten international peace and security. To help resolve disputes, the Secretary - Gene