Working capital

s where - playing one turnover; Days - Number of days in a year (usually take 360); Circuit - the

Working capital


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economy monetary system asset


. Theoretical foundations of current assets

.1 General characteristics of the company's current assets

1.2 Classification and principles of working capital in September

1.3 Cost effectiveness

. Planning requirements current assets

.1 Normalization of current assets and determine the need for them

.2 Own Resources formation and management of working capital in

.3 Indicators of the use of working capital in

. Using circulating assets and ways to speed up their rotation

.1 Provisions for current assets as security for business

.2 Ways to improve and accelerate the use of working capitallist of references




of the theme: Every business, from its production and economic activity must have a certain amount of money. These financial resources the company buys on the market or in other businesses raw materials, fuel, pay electricity bills, pay their employees wages, bear the costs of development of new products, all of which constitutes an essential parameter entity, called " company's current assets. Under current market funds acquire particular importance. Because they are part of productive capital, which takes its value to the newly created product completely and returned to entrepreneur in cash at the end of each cycle of capital. Thus, working capital is an important criterion in determining the profits. Also, working capital is - an important part of the enterprise.availability of sufficient working capital enterprises optimal structure - a necessary prerequisite for its normal functioning in a market economy. It is also important to be able to properly manage working capital, to develop and implement measures that support the reduction in material production and acceleration of turnover of working capital. As a result of accelerated turnover of circulating funds is their release, allowing a number of positive effects. The activity of economic entities to create and sales are in the process of combining the basic production funds, convertible funds, and most work.of the process of production and commercial activity requires continuous investment in these items for their expanded reproduction. Unlike the fixed production assets Current Assets consumed in one production cycle and the cost is fully transferred to the cost of manufactured products. Thus a part in their real forms part of the established product and commodity becomes the form in which it will use the consumer.purpose of course work to develop scientifically-methodical, organizational and economic planning of current assets of the enterprise. To accomplish our goal, try to achieve the following objectives: - Analyze the level of control in enterprises of all available working capital and their performance; - Characterize the functions, tasks and assess the level of current assets; - Define the problem of turnover funds at risk. The research object is planning the implementation of enterprise working capital and their involvement and ways to improve. Subject of research is current assets as one of the components of the enterprise. Thus, working capital are avansuyemu in cash value for the systematic creation and use of production assets and working capital funds in circulation the minimum necessary amount to ensure compliance now available products and timely settlements.the current assets include both tangible and monetary resources from their organization and efficiency of the process depends not only material production but also the financial stability of the enterprise.




1. Theoretical foundations of current assets


.1 Overview of the company's current assets

companies there are ongoing financial costs (cash) funds in the process of carrying out certain economic cycle (pass money, and commodity production stage). In the first stage circuit are used to purchase raw materials and other resources that go with cash in material commodity, form certain inventory, and then entered the second stage - production. At this stage in the production process include workers who get the work done for wages. Then the material and commodity values materialized in the form of finished products.last stage circuit manufactured products are sold and the company has adequate revenue (sum), which not only fully recover the earlier pre-paid expenses, but also provides a profit. Working capital - a set of enterprise funds necessary for the formation of circulation and production of circulating funds and funds of circulation. [5, p.. 150]'s current assets - is one of the main objects of Financial Management submitted in cash and directly connected with the functioning of money and monetary system. My role as an instrument of mutual relations of all kinds sub'yektamyfinansovyh its activities, working capital affect the movement of assets and capital of the enterprise, characterized by the correct size, direction and time. [1, sec. 165] Task as quickly maneuvering current assets, ie the maximum acceleration rate of working capital - one of the current economy in modern industry. " [9, sec. 31] Formation and regulation of certain elements of working capital has its peculiarities.this in mind distinguish current assets in the production and trafficking, and distribute them to a normalized and normalized (Fig. 1.1). [5, p.. 151] Circulating capital, while in motion within its safety pass through three stages successively cycle. [17, sec. 143]first stage occurs in the sphere of circulation, when the working capital in the form of funds allocated to the company at the time of its organization or received while carrying on oral products used to purchase production. In the second phase cycle inventory without indirectly involved in the production process and after its completion host commodity form, that is re walk from the sphere of production and circulation areas. Treiya. last, stage of cycle flows in circulation when the working capital in the process of product from commodity form again go into cash. Admission to the account of the enterprise is the final point of circulation. Feature working capital cycle lies in the fact that. making a turnover, working capital at each moment are in all three forms. Delay movement of funds for any phase of the cycle breaks normal course of production and causes difficulties in finansovomi position of the enterprise. [6, c. 80]Funds consist of three parts:

Industrial supplies;

Work in progress and semifinished products of own manufacture;

Expenses of future periods. Production Inventory

is the subject of work that are not yet involved in the production process and are at under run enterprises in the form of stocks.production and semi-finished products of own production of it that has not yet passed all siadiy processing. Deferred expenses is nerechovi elements of current assets, which include the cost of training and development of new products, taking place in this period but will be repaid in the future. Turnover of business assets in their movement are also associated with the funds circulation serving the sphere of circulation. They include the end products, finished products, which is shipped and in transit, cash in current and other accounts, cash in pending settlements, including accounts receivable and cash on hand. [6, c. 81]circulation - is the residue of finished products in stock companies shipped but not paid for the goods and the balances of enterprises on the current account at a bank office, in the calculation of receivables and enclosed in a short-term securities. Some practical importance are identification and evaluation of the structure of current assets. They (the funds) are used more efficiently when their greater part is occupied in the production. Stay current assets in circulation - only a necessary condition for the continuity of the process of reproduction, but this part of the enterprise funds is not directly involved in establishing the value of manufactured products. [5, p.. 151]of working capital - a share of the cost of certain articles of current production assets and funds in the total turnover of working capital. Structure of working capital is considerable variation in individual sectors of the economy. It depends on the composition and structure of production costs, conditions of supply of goods, conditions of production (of the works provided in servants) calculations. If we consider the structure of current assets in certain industries, it should be noted that the coal industry, as has been said, a significant proportion are deferred expenses. This is relatively high preparation costs prior to mining operations (planning for future development of overburden, construction of mines and other). [17, sec. 145] Thus, working capital (working capital) - this means, pre-paid in the current business assets and funds of circulation for the continuity of the process of production, sales and profit.


1.2 Classification and principles of working capital

's current assets are classified on three grounds: 1) depending on their participation in the circulation of money; 2) methods of planning, principles of organization and regulation; 3) the sources of formation. According to the first signs of current assets divided by current assets, pre-paid in the current business assets and working capital, pre-paid funds in circulation. This division caused by the availability of working capital funds kruhobihu in two separate areas - the production and circulation areas. The higher proportion of current assets placed in production, the working capital is used efficiently. [17, sec. 146 - 147] Depending on how planning working

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