Whole sentence structures have been adopted in the process of translating/ interpreting. He laughs best who laughs last Той сміється найкраще, хто сміється останнім; Strike the iron while it is hot - Куй залізо, доки гаряче.
All that can also be a testimony to the versatile influence of language contrasts. But whatever the origin, the structural identify of word groups and sentences facilities their translation from English into Ukrainian or vice versa.
- Translation in teaching of foreign languages
Translation as means of teaching foreign languages has no independent means of translating only. Still translating in a foreign language teachers arsenal should not be ignored completely since in many a case it remains not only the most effective but also the only teaching means for achieving the necessary aim. That is why translating is often resorted to in the following cases:
1. When introducing abstract lexical notions which cannot easily be explained in a descriptive way or by actions (gestures): think, hate, love, actual, invincible, generally, peace, turn, etc.
2. In order to save time and avoid diverting the attention of students by lengthily explanation of the meaning of words, word-combinations or sentences in the process of reading or listening to an unfamiliar passage.
3. When checking the comprehension of the lexical material (new words, expressions) and in order to avoid the unnecessary ambiguity which may arise in the process of teaching through pictures since a picture of a tree, for example, may be understood as “a tree” or a kind of tree (oak-tree, birch-tree, pine-tree, etc.).
4. To explain while introducing (usually at the initial stage of learning) the new grammar/ phonetical material especially the phenomena which do not exist in the native tongue (e.g. the continuous or the perfect forms of the verb, the tunes in questions, etc.).
5. When revising the lexical or grammar material studied at the lesson/ at previous lessons in answering questions like “What is the Ukrainian/ English for the “gerund,” the “continuous/ the perfect forms of the verb?”
6. While discriminating the meaning of synonyms or antonyms of the foreign languages.
7. To control the knowledge of students in written and oral tests on lexical or grammar material.
8. When introducing phraseology which is quite impossible to teach and learn otherwise than on the basis of translating.
9. Before learning any text by heart (poems, excerpts of prose, the roles of characters in plays).
10. When dealing with the figures of speech like metaphors, epithets, similes, hyperboles, etc. in the process of reading or translating the belles-lettres passages at the advanced stage.
11. When comparing the expressive means in the source language to those in the target language, etc.
Translating helps the student to master the expressive means in the source language and the corresponding means in the target language. In the process of translating the students establish sets of equivalent substitutes in the target language for the corresponding lexical, grammatical or stylistic phenomena of the source language. No wonder that the students at any stage of learning a foreign language when not understanding some word, word-combination or sentence always resorts to intuitive translating of it.
4 Descriptive and Antonymic Translating
One must bear in mind that it is the notional meaning of the source language unit and not its morphological nature or structural form that is to be conveyed in the target language. As a result the target language unit which equivalently / faithfully conveys the denotative/ connotative meaning of the corresponding source language unit may not necessarily belong to the same stratification level. Depending on the notion expressed by the source language word/ lexeme it may be conveyed in the target language sometimes through a word-combination or even through a sentence i.e. descriptively: indulge робити собі приємність у чомусь, віддаватися втіхам; infamous той (та, те), що має ганебну славу; inessentials предмети не першої необхідності, предмети роскоші; вщерть up to the brim, full to the brim, вязи the nape of ones head, the back of the head; окраєць crust of a loaf, hunk of a bread; окривіти(осліпнути) to become lame (grow blind).
Therefore the descriptive way of conveying the sense of language units implies their structural transformation which is necessary to explain their meaning with the help of hierarchically different target language units.
Descriptive translating/interpreting is very often employed to render the content of idioms/phraseologism which has no equivalents in the target language. In English: as(mad) as a hatter цілком божевільний; All my eye and Betty Martin! нісенітниці ( дурниці); like one (twelve) oclock миттю, вмить, прожогом; In Ukrainian: зуб на зуб не попадати to feel very cold ( to feel freezing); навчить біда коржі з маком їсти hard times make one intentive; наговорити сім кіп/мішків гречаної вовни to say much nonsence.
Descriptive transtating is also often employed when dealing with the notions of specific national lexicon: haggisrerric (запечений вівсяний кендюх, начинений вівсяними крупами впереміш з січений овечим потрухом); porrige порідж, густа вівсяна каша, зварена на воді чи молоці); Senate сенат ( рада університету в Англії; складається переважно з професорів); sweet-meat солодка страва, приготовлена на цукрі чи медові.
Alongside the literal translating the explication of the meaning of specific necessary: вареники varenyky, middle-sized dumplings with curd, cherries; дума, duma, Ukrainian historic epic song; кобзар kobzar, a performer of Dumas to the accompaniment of the bandore or kobza.
Descriptive translating is also made use of in foot-notes to explain obscure places in narration.
The antonymic translating is employed for the sake of achieving faithfulness in conveying the content or expressiveness when an affirmative in sense or structure language unit (word, word-combination or sentence) is conveyed as a negative in a sense or structure but identical in content language unit or vice versa: to have quite a few friends мати багато друзів; mind your own business не втручайся не в свої справи; take it easy не хвилюйся, не переживай; not infrequently часто; no time like the present лови момент ( використовуй нагоду); не спитавши броду, не лізь у воду look before you leap; немає лиха без добра every dark cloud has a silver lining.
The antonymic device is employed in the following cases:
- When in the target language there is no direct equivalent for the sense unit of the source language. For example, the noun “inferiority” and the adjective “inferior” (like the verb phrase “to be inferior”) have no single word equivalents in Ukrainian. So their lexical meaning can be conveyed either in a descriptive way or with the help of the antonyms “superiority,” “superior”: The defeat of the Notts in last seasons cup semi-finals was certainly the result of their physical and tactical inferiorit…(M.Star). Поразка клубу «Ноттінгем Форест» у торішньому півфінальному матчі на кубок була наслідком переваги супротивників у фізичній та тактичній підготовці.
The meaning of some English word groups can also be conveyed in Ukrainian automatically only: Baines was reading a newspaper in his shirt sleeves. Бейнз сидів без піджака і читав газету. Half an hour ago Walter for his life would have hardly called her by name. Ще півгодини тому Уолтер нізащо в світі не назвав би її по імені. “Do you mind this?” Ви не заперечуєте?
- when the sense unit of the source language has two negations of its own which create an affirmation: In those clothes she was by no means nonelegant. У цьому вбранні вона була досить елегантною. My mother…not to be dislike this character. Моїй матері …ніби
( здавалось) сподобалась ця думка.
- in order to achieve the necessary expressiveness in narration: I dont think it will hurt you, baby. Думаю, вам воно не зашкодить, люба. A shell fell close. Неподалік вибухнув снаряд. I hope youll stay.- Сподіваюсь, ви не втечете. It makes all the difference in the world. Ні, не все одно;
- to avoid the use of the same structure close to each other in a text: Keep your head.- не падай духом/ вище голову. Mr. Strickland was a woman of character. Міс Стрікленд була жінкою не без характеру; тобто була жінкою з характером. Most of the staff is not away. Більшість співробітників ще на роботі ( ще не розійшлися). Savina said nothing. Савіна мовчала; тобто нічого не відповіла.
Translation has a polysemantic nature. It means the process of conveying the meaning of a word or sentence from one language into another language. Translation can be performed in written or oral form. It also referred to any sense-to-sense conveying even if the lexical meanings of the componential parts which make up the language units are not substituted for their equivalent lexical meanings in the target language.
The importance of translating and interpreting in modern society has long been recognized, because not a single contact between persons speaking two languages can be established without the help of translators or interpreters. It helps the student to master the ex