Buyers get only those goods for which they feel requirement. Quite often the public subjects to criticism intensive advertizing campaigns that they ostensibly «force» consumers to get the firm goods. It isn't absolutely true we will remember, for example, unsuccessful attempts of company Coca-Cola to present to the market new soft drinks or originally negative reaction of consumers to a car model «Ford Sierra».
Two thirds of new production come to grief already on the first steps on the market. Companies should consider requirements of consumers and the market and to adapt for them the production
The purpose of sales consists in convincing the buyer to get an offered product. Successful marketing provides presence of the necessary product in a proper Internet place and proper time.
These are main principles of marketing «as a result the consumers always receive what they want».
Marketing is the process uniting possibilities of a company and need of the consumer. So, the buyer satisfies the requirements, and the company receives the income of sold goods.
Global network Internet has made electronic commerce accessible to companies of any scale. The electronic show-window in World Wide Web gives the chance to any company to involve clients from every corner of the globe. Similar on-line business forms the new port for sale «virtual», almost not demanding material investments. If the information, services or production (for example, the software) can be put through Web all process of sale (including payment) can occur on-line.
Therefore the given theme seems actual for consideration.
E-marketing introduces new features and advantages in comparison with the traditional marketing. Here some of them:
1) Key role transition from manufacturers to consumers
One of the most fundamental qualities introduced by the Internet in the world of modern commerce is key role transition from manufacturers to consumers. The Internet has made a reality for the companies possibility to draw attention of the new client of all for tens the seconds spent by it in front of the screen of the computer. However at the same time it has given the chance to the same user to pass for some clicks of the mouse to any of competitors. In such situation the attention of buyers becomes the great value, and the established mutual relations with clients the main capital of the companies.
2) Globalization of activity and costs decreasing
The Internet considerably changes spatial and time scales of commerce conducting. It is the global communication medium which does not have any territorial restrictions. Access cost to the information doesn't depend on remoteness from it, contrary to traditional means where this dependence is directly proportional. Thus, electronic commerce allows even to the smallest suppliers to reach global presence and to be engaged in business on a global scale. Accordingly, customers also have global choice from all potential suppliers offering the demanded goods or services irrespective of a geographical arrangement. The distance between the seller and the buyer plays a role only from the point of view of transport costs.
The time scale in the environment of the Internet also considerably differs from the usual. High efficiency of communicative properties of the Internet provides possibility of cutting-down of time for search of partners, decision-making, realization of transactions, working out of new production, and etc. Besides, its communicative characteristics possesses the high flexibility allowing easily to make change of the presented information, and, thereby, to support its urgency without a time delay and expenses for distribution.
The effects above also lead to considerable cutting-down transactional costs, that is the costs connected with adjustment and maintenance of interaction between the company, its customers and suppliers. Thus cost of communications, in comparison with traditional means, becomes minimum, and their functionality and scalability considerably increase.
3) Personification of interaction and transition to e-marketing to «one-one».
By using means of electronic interaction the companies can receive the detailed information on inquiries of each individual customer and automatically give products and the services corresponding to individual requirements.
Developing e-marketing is especially important for the large companies. It doesn't mean that it is necessary for them to have own Internet shop. The companies should understand that the Internet means dialogue with clients. So, the social network can help with brand development, but also can destroy it, and for very short time. Investments into construction of system of dialogue with the client represent an important component of all strategy as a whole. Recently miscalculations in strategy of some global brands, such as absence of attention to opinion of clients and isn't enough efficient control ports of interaction with clients, have negatively affected reputation of these brands.
The most of research and practitioners agree that the need to develop a comprehensive understanding of consumer behaviour and creating a compelling online environment are essential for effectiveness of e-marketing (KRISHNAMURTY, S. 2006, p. 3).
The other researchers suggest that effectiveness of e-marketing should be based on total marketing communication of a company even it contradicts with consumer behavior. Total marketing communication proposes that all marketing activities for a company should be complementary to each other and their total sum of efforts should be consistent with the companys present marketing goals and objectives instead of analyzing consumer behavior (ZONGQING Z., 2004, p. 94).
One of the most controversial question in this field is how to measure the effectiveness of e-marketing activity. Experts in e-marketing don't have any unity on this question. So, a number of scientists Zhivetin, V.V., Samohvalov, V.L., Chernov, N.P., FeraponovaI.A. (2008, p. 12) consider that efficiency of a e-marketing policy in relation to the concrete company develops of results of perfection of industrial-marketing activity in following basic directions: optimum use of potential of the market; increase of reliability of look-ahead estimations; a finding of a segment of the market of the given goods, etc.
M. Tugan-Baranovsky, L.V.Balabanov (2006, p. 165) suggest to estimate efficiency of e-marketing in the following directions: buyers, marketing integration, adequacy of the information, strategic orientation, operative efficiency. But they don't define an estimation system and algorithm to calculate the marketing effectiveness.
The majority of experts in American companies assert that the effect of e-marketing activity consists in growth of sales volumes and profit. According to Jashevoj G. A (2007, p. 342), on the end results influence except marketing and other components of potential of the enterprise management, shots, production potentialities (the equipment, technology), the finance, therefore such estimation is too simplified.
G. Assel (2007, p. 230) suggests to estimate efficiency of marketing activity, as efficiency of expenses for marketing. Thus by means of economic-statistical methods dependence between expenses for marketing and result sales volume or profit is investigated. It is clear to me that such method of an estimation is an estimation of efficiency of expenses, instead of the most marketing activity.
M. MakDonald (2002 cited in Kotler, 2009, p. 39) asserts that the empirical approach is more preferable, than quantitative, based on statistical check of narrow deductive hypotheses. The analysis of marketing efficiency should be in the following directions: the internal relation of management of the companies to marketing (its definition, a role and functions); the organization of this activity (involving in process of strategic planning, level of coordination and an information exchange between marketing functions); practical execution of marketing functions (use of marketing probes, planning, participation in working out of the new goods and etc.).
There is also an opinion that marketing doesn't submit to any rules. Therefore application of quantitative methods at planning or an estimation of actual results of marketing action is complicated. Supporters of this opinion consider that not all purposes can be formulated quantitatively.
Application of quantitative methods is limited due to the following reasons:
- complexity of object of studying, nonlinearity of marketing processes, presence of threshold effects, for example, a minimum level of stimulation of sales, time logs (for example, reaction of consumers to advertizing often isn't carried out immediately);
- effect of marketing variables interaction are interdependent, for example, the price, assortment, quality, release volume;
- complexity of measurement of marketing problems; it is difficult to measure reaction of consumers to certain stimulus, for example, advertizing, indirect methods of an estimation therefore are often applied;
- instability of the marketing interrelations caused by changes of tastes, habits, estimations, etc., relative incompatibility of the personnel which is engaged in marketing and application of quantitative methods in its estimation. The first give a priority to the informal methods, the second to mathematical modeling.
The marketing expert, the professor of the London business school Kenneth Simonds, notices that in marketing nothing ever repeats, all variously for d