The use of Total Physical Response techniques in teaching English language school

4.How English teaching and learning differs, working with 2-3 grade pupils and 4 grade pupils, integrating TPR method into lessons?1.

The use of Total Physical Response techniques in teaching English language school

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has had a chance to go solo and finally, class imitates series orally as well as physically, first together and then as individual volunteers lading the class.

According to Frost ( 2007) the teacher plays the role of parent in the classroom. She can start by saying a word ('jump') or a phrase ('look at the board') and demonstrating an action. The teacher then says the command and the students all do the action; After repeating a few times it is possible to extend this by asking the students to repeat the word as they do the action; When they feel confident with the word or phrase teacher can then ask the students to direct each other or the whole class.can be used to teach and practice many things. Children can learn vocabulary which is connected with actions (smile, chop, headache, wriggle), tenses past/present/future and continuous aspects (Every morning I clean my teeth, I make my bed, I eat breakfast), Classroom language (Open your books) ,Imperatives/Instructions (Stand up, close your eyes), Story- telling (Frost, 2007).TPR, firstly the students could do the actions and then drill (chorally and individually). Then teacher gives them an opportunity to practice making the sounds. They are then ready to give commands to each other. There are lots of games for children like Simon Says, when teacher gives a command and students should only do it if teacher says "Simon says..." at the start. Teacher might say, "Simon says, 'slice some bread'" or "Simon says, 'chop and onion'" and the students must do the action. However if teacher says, "Whisk an egg" the students shouldn't do this. If anyone does the action that Simon doesn't say then they are out and have to watch for the mistakes of the other students. (Frost and Council)best way to start the lesson according to Garcia (2001) is to keep the below mentioned instructions which help pupils not only to remember new vocabulary but also to pre-teach the new set which Asher ( in Garcia, 2001) claims to be 12-16 new lexical items in one lesson. It is recommended to let students sit in a semi circle or divide them into two groups facing each other, so there will be ample space for action in the middle. In front of the students there should be placed three chairs. One chair for the teacher to perform the action, and two chairs for the students who are asked to accompany the teacher. The teacher gives a command and performs it. Then the teacher repeats the command again and performs it in company of two volunteer students. Afterwards teacher repeats the command for the third time and only the volunteer students perform it. The teacher asks one of the volunteer student to perform the command and involves observing students by giving them commands. Students give commands to one another and perform each one. The teacher calls for new volunteers to join him or her and the whole process is repeated again and some new elements can be presented.and Rodgers (2001) think that still and all the activities should be simple enough for the children to understand what is expected of them. The task should be within their abilities: it needs to be achieval but at the same time sufficiently stimulating for them to feel satisfied with their work. The activities should be largely orally based - indeed, with very young children listening activities will take up a large proportion of class time. Written activities should be used sparingly with younger children (Phillips, 2003.)summary, there are lots of different ways and techniques of using TPR in classroom activities, games, songs, stories and etc. However the procedures teaching with TPR are very common: The teacher says the command and he himself performs the action then teacher says the command and both the teacher and the students, then perform the action. After that teacher says the command but only students perform the action. And finally the teacher tells one student at a time to do commands.

 

.3Advantages of TPR method

TPR is very effective teaching method because can be adapted for all kinds of teaching situations, teacher just needs to use his/her imagination. Using TPR it is a lot of fun. Students enjoy it and it can be a real stirrer in the class. It lifts the pace and the mood. This method is very memorable. It really helps students to remember phrases or words. TPR can be used in large or small classes. It doesn't really matter how many students teacher has as long as teacher is prepared to take the lead, the students will follow. The physical actions get across the meaning effectively so that all the students are able to understand and use the target language. It doesn't require a lot of preparation or materials. As long as teacher is clear what he/she want to practice (a rehearsal beforehand can help) , it won't take a lot of time to get ready. TPR is very effective with teenagers and young learners as it involves both left and right-brained learning (Frost, 2007)to Diaz (2005) using TPR Classes are active - teacher is not in his/her seat all period. The focus for the first weeks is on listening and moving in response to what the teacher says. There is heavy emphasis on listening comprehension, because the larger your listening comprehension vocabulary is, the larger your speaking vocabulary will become. The environment is one in which things happen and are talked about. It is also an environment which is purposely kept very free of stress, because we know that language is not acquired under stressful circumstances. Lots of language is learned in happy circumstances, especially while you're having fun. TPR instruction is highly creative, for both the teacher and the students. The teacher must design activities that the learning brain perceives as real and interesting. Within these real experiences, students are free to generate all kinds of expressions using the language they're studying, and to lead instruction in unique directions. Often students don't realize how much they are learning while they are engaged in a TPR activity. They think they're just having fun creating all kinds of new utterances and situations in the active environment in the room.Frost (2007) sees some minor disadvantages using this method. Students who are not used to such things might find it embarrassing. It is only really suitable for beginner levels. I is not possible to teach everything with TPR and if used a lot it would become repetitive. On the other hand teachers can use it successfully with Intermediate and Advanced levels. They just need to adapt the language accordingly. Using TPR can be a successful and fun way of changing the dynamics and pace of a lesson used in conjunction with other methods and techniques.everything up as a resultant there are lots of advantages using TPR method. TPR activities are enjoyable, memorable and fun. This method is very effective and does not require a lot of preparation and materials. However this method can be embarrassing for some students and if used a lot it would become repetitive. Thus, TPR activities are interesting, challenging and motivating, and almost all the students enjoy them. The use of TPR shows us fun way of teaching and learning English.

 

II.. THE PECULIARITIES OF TPR METHOD APPLYING IT TO YOUNG LEARNERS EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

 

1.Analysis of methodology

 

The purpose of the research. This empiric research is to determine the peculiarities of TPR method applying it to young learners.

Exploratories. 5 english teachers.1 is a head teacher having English philology bachelor degree, qualification of pedagogue, 10 years experience and working with children in Klaipėdas comprehensive school.2 graduated College and has 2 years experience working in Kretingas gymnasium.3 graduated "College of Business Management and Languages" the speciality of English business language, currently is studying primary education and 2 years working as vicarious teacher in Klaipedas comprehensive school" .4 graduated Klaipeda State College, the speciality of French-English pedagogy, currently is studying in University the speciality of English Philology and working in Kretingas primary school".5 has master degree of English philology, qualification of English pedagogue and 4 years experience working in Vilnius Gymnasium.

The research consist of four stages:

.Stage. Analysis of the scientific literature. (February, 2011 - April,2011). In this stage the theme was formulated. The purpose and the tasks of the research were set out and methods applied. The scientific literature was used to analyse the purpose of the research.

2.Stage. Preparation of the research.(May,2011)this stage, the questions for an interview were prepared for English teacher, to find out their opinion about peculiarities of TPR method teaching young learners. Interview questions were opened questions for the teachers.

3.Stage. The beginning of the research.(May,2011 - June,2011)this period 4 participants were visited at their work place - secondary school and 1- gave an interview via phone.this stage 5 teachers were interviewed.

4.Stage. Interview with teachers.this stage the teachers had to answer the given questions. Before being interviewed the teachers were introduced to the aim and tasks of the research.

5.Stage. Analysis of the results of the research.( June, 2011)this stage of the research was analysed received information of the research, considered and compared with the results of the research.

6.Stage. The end of work.( June,2011)this stage the conclusions of the paper were formulated.Ethic of the Research

During the research the rules of the ethics such respect for

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