The use of Total Physical Response techniques in teaching English language school

4.How English teaching and learning differs, working with 2-3 grade pupils and 4 grade pupils, integrating TPR method into lessons?1.

The use of Total Physical Response techniques in teaching English language school

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roles.in TPR have the primary roles of listeners and performers. They listen attentively and respond physically to commands given by the teacher. Learners are also expected to recognize and respond to novel combinations of previously taught items. They are requires to produce novel combinations of their own. Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak-that is, when a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized (Richard and Rodgers 2001: 76).to Larsen and Freeman (2000), the students are imitators of the teachers nonverbal model. There will be a role reversal with individual students directing the teacher and the other students. In TPR, learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak that is when a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized. In the first stage of TPR training, learners should mainly listen to teachers commands in silence and watch him or her performing the action. In the next stage pupils respond to the commands with physical action, still keeping in silence, which builds up learners confidence for later correct pronunciation. At first they respond to commands as a group, later individually. When students become familiar with commands and feel ready to talk, they can overtake the teachers role and instruct other students with their own commands. However, this stage usually comes a bit later as learners confidence in understanding develops through the silent period.the teaching learning process using TPR method, teacher plays an active and direct role. According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 116) "teacher is the director of all students behaviours". Asher (1977) as quoted by Richard and Rodgers (2001: 76) states that "The teacher plays an active and direct role in Total Physical Response". It means that teacher is the one who decides what to teach, who models and presents the new material, and who selects supporting materials for classroom use. Teacher is encouraged to be well prepared and well organized so that the lesson flows smoothly and predictable.is the important factor in teaching and learning process. He has a great responsibility to transfer his knowledge and skill to the students, to guide them in developing their mind, and to educate them on how to absorb, to analyze, and to expand their individual knowledge and skills.( 2002) extinguishes some characteristics of the elementary school English teacher. They are: encourage students to read in English (stories, comics, reading games); encourage them to work meaning out for themselves; explain thing about language; use a wider range of language input as their model for language use; encourage creative writing and help them to experiment with the language. According to the statements above, it is important for the primary school English teacher to be more creative in teaching, for example by using some interesting media and method. Therefore, the students will enjoy the lesson more.sum everything up, language teachers has an active role in this method. He decides what to teach, which materials to use and how they are to be presented.. Learners have the roles of listeners and performers. First, they must listen to what the teacher says. Then, they are expected to respond physically to those commands given by the teacher. Teacher must allow period of silence until confidence of understanding is reached and also be tolerant towards the mistakes students make.

 

3. Complexion and techniques of TPR classroom activities

chapter will present what advantageous teaching techniques and materials teachers use in order to achieve the best results, how differs teaching procedures and what are advantages and disadvantages of Total Physical response.

 

3.1TPR teaching materials and Activities

TPR can be used to practice and teach various things. It is well suited to teaching classroom language and other vocabulary connected with actions. According to Richard and Rodgers (2001) there are some activities which are done by the teacher and students in teaching learning process, as follows: Imperative drill, Conversational dialogue, Role play, Reading and Writing. Imperative drills are the major classroom activity in Total Physical Response. They are typically used to elicit physical actions and activity on the part of the learners. In this sense, students play main roles as a listener and a performer. They listen attentively and respond physically to commands by the teacher. Students need to respond both individually and collectively. Conversational dialogues should be delayed until after about 120 hours of instruction and students are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak. However role plays centre on everyday situations, such as at the restaurant, supermarket, kitchen, hotel, or gas station. In role plays, the teacher (instructor) will be a director of a stage play and the students are the actors/actress. The teacher decides what will be learned, who will be role and show the material of learning. Reading and writing activities are used to add students vocabulary and to train students arranging the sentence based on tenses, e.c. each time the teacher writes a command, she acts it out. The students copy the sentences from the blackboard/whiteboard into the notebooks (Richards, Rodgers, 2001)..beginners no textbooks are needed but the teacher's voice, actions, TPR songs and gestures become the most important tools. Later the teacher may use common classroom objects such as books, pens, radio, furniture that students can not only observe but also touch, use or point to. Later in the course, the teacher will need additional supporting materials including pictures, realia, word cards, and real objects such as toys, goods, clothes or Ashers TPR student kits. Most of these materials can teachers make themselves or collect them from pet shops, home or magazines. The TPR student kits can be used effectively as they concentrate on specific situations such as home, school, supermarket, park or beach. If the teacher is artistic, the TPR kits can be replaced for example by huge paintings of different rooms in different corners of the classroom or by posters of similar use. Students may use these kits, paintings or posters to construct scenes (Richards, Rodgers, 2001).can be concluded that there are four types of TPR activities: Imperative drill, Conversational dialogue, Role play, Reading and Writing. For absolute beginners, lessons may not require the use of materials, since the teachers voice, actions and gestures may be a sufficient basis for classroom activities. Later, the teacher may use common classroom objects, such as books, pens, cups, furniture. As the course develops, the teacher will need to make or collect supporting materials to support teaching points. These may include pictures, realia, slides, and word charts.

 

.2Procedures of Teaching(in Richard and Rodgers, 2001: 77-78) provides a lesson-by lesson account of a course taught according to TPR principles. It is almost similar to the principles of TPR, as follows: the teacher says the command and he himself performs the action then the teacher says the command and both the teacher and the students perform the action and later on, the teacher says the command but only students perform the action. The four steps in this course are as follows: First is review. This is a warming-up step. The purpose is to check students understanding about the previous lesson and to warm-up the students readiness in new material before they really enter the new material. Next is New Command. Here, the teacher introduces some new vocabularies related to the theme and based on the schools curriculum, such as: Take a cup. Pour the hot water on a cup Wash your hands. Hold the phone holder. Give me a glass of water. Dont walk on the floor! Then, the teacher asks simple question which the students can answer with a gesture, such as pointing to something or someone. Second is role reversal. Students readily volunteer to utter commands that manipulate the behaviour of the instructor and other students. Third is reading and writing. The teacher writes on the whiteboard each new vocabulary item and a sentence to illustrate the item. Then, she reads each item and acts out the sentence. The students listen as she reads the material. Some copy the information in their notebook. (Richard and Rodgers, 2001: 77-78).are lots of different teaching techniques. Typically, the initial TPR lessons are commands involving the whole body - stand up, sit down, turn around, walk, stop. Those actions are demonstrated by the teacher, who then invites students to participate with her as she continues to say the words. Fairly soon, the teacher quietly stops demonstrating, and the students realize that they somehow just know what to do in response to the words. There is no translation. There is no such thing as cheating - you're encouraged to look at what others are doing if you're not sure what to do. You're also encouraged to trust your body, because sometimes it knows what to do before your brain does (Diaz, 2005)., Dahlberg, Chiu, Fang and Hwang (2008) propose such teaching sequence: Firstly teacher presents series orally, accompanying words with pantomime, props. Secondly - repeats series orally and class joins with pantomime, props. Thirdly - class pantomimes the series as teacher repeats orally but does not model actions. If students do not perform the pantomime on their own teacher models the action again. Fourthly - teacher makes a mistake in the sequence, perhaps leaving something out to see if students catch it and correct the teacher. Then individual volunteers pantomime the series as teacher repeats orally, without modeling. Do until everyone

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