role of imagination
delight in imagination and fantasy. It is more than simply a matter of enjoyment. In the primary school, children are very busing making sense of the world about them. They are identifying pattern and also deviation from that pattern. Thy test out their versions of the world through fantasy and confirm how the world actually is by imaging how it might be different. In the language classroom this capacity for fantasy and imagination has a very constructive part to play.teaching should be concerned with real life. But it would be a great pity if we were so concerned to promote reality in the classroom that we forgot that reality for the children includes imagination and fantasy. The act of fantasizing, of imagining, is very much an authentic part of being a child. If we accept the role of the imagination in childrens lives we can see that it provides another very powerful stimulus for real language use. We need to find ways of building on this factor in the language classroom to. We want to stimulate the childrens creative imagination so that they want to use the language to share their ideas.
instinct for interaction and talk
all the instincts and attributes that children bring to the classroom this probably the most important for the language teacher. It is also the most obvious, so there is no need to labour the point. This particular capacity can surface unbidden and sometimes unwanted in all classrooms. Its persistence and strength is very much to our advantage in the primary language classroom. It is the one of the most powerful motivators for using the language. Children need to talk. Without talking they cannot become good at talking.
preparation in junior forms
preparing a lesson the teacher plans organization, pupils doing and saying, and teachers doing and saying.typical form of a lesson in junior forms is a theatrical game. The theatrical game is characterized by a wide usage of game elements, competition, concealed forms of control, functional music, combination of collective pair and individual work. Muck attention should be paid to involuntary memorizing. To involve all pupils in work a teacher should compile a kind of scenario in which every pupil has his role, while the teacher only stimulates and directs his pupils role-playing.
steps a lesson preparation
.Study the school syllabus (general requirements, requirements for a certain class).
.Observe conditions in which teaching-learning process is going to take place.
.Acquaint with additional materials available and those necessary for successful work.
.Study a lesson plan available in Teachers Book and correlate it with abilities of your pupils, your personal characteristics.
.Try to create your own lesson plan that coordinates with your intentions:)Think over practical, cultural, educational and bringing-up aims that have to be realized in the lesson.)Choose linguistic materials, exercise suitable for realizing the aims.)Think over activities which stir (wake up, stimulate) a class and which settle them. )Choose methods and techniques aimed at better acquisition of material and realizing the objectives. If they are chosen successfully, the pupils will see the results of work and it will be easy for the teacher to make conclusions.)Arrange components of the lesson logically in accordance with parts of a certain lesson type.)Think over the hometask i.e. the time of its presentation, content, size. It is better if it naturally emerges from the lesson procedure.
Principles of Teaching and Learning English in the Primary School
1.Every lesson should begin with a greeting in a foreign language and a talk. In the group of the complete beginners the teacher conducts the conversation with pupils. Later when pupils have already had some experience, a pupil on duty or any other pupil may conduct it. It is possible to arrange the conversation in pairs. A foreign language should be used for all classroom activities.
2.There should be a variety of activities in every lesson.
.The lesson should be conducted at a high speed when oral drill exercises are performed. Pupils may be seated while saying a word, a phrase or a sentence.
.The lesson should provide time for the activity of every pupil in the class. The teacher should talk as little as possible.
.The lesson should provide conditions for pupils to learn. Language is a skill, so it should be learnt, it cannot be taught, - M. West once said. Pupils should be taught to learn for themselves.
.The work done during the lesson should prepare pupils for their independent work at home. At early stages it is advisable not to assign as hometask exercises including language material that has not been covered in class.
.The lesson should be equipped with teaching aids and teaching materials, which create natural situations for developing pupils listening and speaking skills in a foreign language.
.Develop ways of checking whether the pupils understand what they say may be linguistically correct.the primary stage first of all we should distinguish lessons of introductory course (first term of the first year of language learning). The peculiarity of introductory course is oral conducting of lesson. Pupils speak and read letters of ABC. They neither read words, sentences, nor write. Oral teaching demands inventiveness, quick activity on the part of the teacher. It is time to involve pupils in the world of English, to find a place for English in their hearts. Bright visualization is obligatory. Games, poems small, dialogues role-play, chorus work should prevail.
Advantages of the Oral Introductory Course
1.It allows children to get a clear idea of how the language sounds from the very first steps.
2.It stimulates pupils interest as they deal with the language in its communicative function. For children a language is first of all speech. So they are instructed in comprehension of elementary commands, requests, statements and questions on the hand, and in saying something in a foreign language on the other hand. They may speak about themselves, friends, objects and things around.
.Much attention is paid to the development of pronunciation habits and skills both in articulation and intonation since pupils are taught spoken language only.
.Pupils responses reflect the level of their comprehension of information. If it is slow and inaccurate, they revise it.
.It provides activity in the lesson. Pupils must listen to what the teacher and their classmates say. Their memory, thinking, visual, auditory, and listening analyzers are at work.
.It gives plenty of time for hearing, repetition, and reproduction.introductory course combined lessons prevail. Such speech activities as reading and writing are involved. Pupils first listen to the portion of learning material, then it in speaking; the previously learnt material is used for reading and writing. Thus, pupils work over the material twice: first in oral speech then in written speech.differ in many ways. They are different in discipline, cultural background and interests. All the teachers are acquainted with such phenomenon: the same children always finish the task first and can get bored or disruptive. Or one half of the students have fulfilled the task while the other part only just begun to do it. Most weaker pupils are often bad listeners because its difficult for them to understand the teacher. The bigger the class is, the more the problems are compounded.may be one of the new places left where children can find quiet and sustained application to a task in hand. How can we reconcile this need to give the children periods of sustained calm and independent work with our declared intention to promote interaction and communication? In other words, how can we be sure that interaction and communication do not simply lead to unproductive fragmentation and restlessness? This is particularly important when our classes are large or our classroom very cramped.
stir factor and settle one
language activities stir a class. In a positive sense stir means that activities wake them up, stimulate them. In a negative sense, it may be that the activity over-excite them or allow them to become unconstructively restless. There are other activities, which have the opposite effect. They seem to settle the children. To put it positively, that means they will calm a class down. The negative side of this is to say that some activities will bore the class into inertia.we know the effect of activities like this, we can plan lesson, which neither stay stuck in dullness nor get out of hand in excitement. So it is useful to make your own list from experience of your particular class or classes. For example, most teachers find copying quietens children like magic. So does colouring. Competitions, on the other hand make children excited and noisy.way of looking at it is in terms of the different effects of different language skills. Oral work always seems to stir. Listening usually settles. You can equally well apply the same stir/settle distinction to any typical and regular teaching. For example, you perhaps have a routine oral exchange of several sentences with which you regularly begin a lesson. Ask yourself whether it basically stir or settles. There may be occasions when it is not an appropriate start.will help to think of any classroom even