The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"
"A blue rose"
The largest art education after "the art World" and "the Union of Russian artists" was "the Blue rose". Under this name in 1907 in Moscow the exhibition which has united group of young artists, recent pupils of the Moscow school of painting, sculpturing and architecture - followers of Borisov-Musatov has taken place. Though this exhibition was unique, it has revealed a generality of initial creative principles and graphic receptions of the masters presented by it which have formed a special direction in Russian painting. The exhibition "Blue rose" has noted only passing moment in their creative evolution, but the moment significant. It was time of the confusion which have captured a considerable part of Russian society in atmosphere of reaction after defeat of revolution, time reflected in art by an ambiguity of the purposes. The aggravated sensitivity to shades, nuances of vague moods generated images unsteady, escaping, attracted artists to searches of the rafinirovanno-refined colour relations, a thin is decorative-ornamental melodic rhythm, difficult effects of the matte-flickering picturesque invoice.
The characteristic sample of such painting is "the Blue fountain" (1905) - an early cloth of one of leading masters of a direction of P.V.Kuznetsova (1878-1968). The further evolution of this artist is typical for the majority of masters of "the Blue rose". It consisted in overcoming of the hypertrophied psychologism, in aspiration to come back to primary simplicity of sensations of a reality. It was not, however, a way of refusal of former picturesque system, and its logic development and perfection. So there is a series of the pictures devoted заволжским and the Central Asian steppes. Contemplation of immense open spaces, supervision of a measuredly-quiet life of nomad tribes has brought with itself clearing from under the power of vague moods, has turned the artist from eternally escaping to eternally real.
"A Mirage in steppe" (1912) - one of the most perfect products of this cycle. The high sky, quiet lines of horizon, soft outlines of tents freely disseminated in space, accrete with the earth and repeating outlines of a heavenly dome, simple and rhythmical movements of the people cutting sheep, preparing the food, sleeping, - all it thanks to surprisingly thin, to accord of color, forms and contours develops in поэтически a complete picture of the world, over which not imperiously time. Before us primitive patriarchal idyll, "Golden Age", dream of harmony of the person and the nature, come true in reality.
Painting of these cloths is based on thin нюансировке the colorful surface which have got riches and sonority of color tone, before obscured and foggy. Flexible live contours as if are seen through a transparent ripple нагретого by the sun of air. Subjects thanks to it stay on a cloth as though in a suspension, are spiritualized, get a certain magic weightlessness. It seems, that all image is penetrated by a uniform live rhythm, as though a silent wave of the lyrical delight changing a picture of the validity in certain "paradise vision". The thin pathetic lyrics of painting is combined with solemn rhythmic of the compositions counterbalanced and symmetric.
Ориентальная the theme organically enters into creativity of other participant of "the Blue rose", together with Кузнецовым studying in the Moscow school, - M.S.Sarjana (1880-1972). Picturesque method Сарьяна receives the perfected form in 10th years of XX century under impression of trips to Turkey, Iran and Egypt. The artist does not write off everything from nature, that sees an eye, and searches a complete picturesque image, the colorful formula. As well as at Кузнецова, a basis of expressiveness of its cloths is the color stain and the is ornamental-decorative organization of the image on a plane. Such products Сарьяна, as "Street. Midday.
Constantinople "(1910)," The going woman "(1911)," the Date palm tree "(1911), distinguishes that it would be possible to name dynamism of vision. It not long contemplation, and fast fixing of the basic colorful relations in sharply contrast comparisons.
If painting Кузнецова is similar to lyrical outpouring, painting Сарьяна - a colorful aphorism concerning seen. prefers the intensive, bright, definitely directed light concealing shades of color and baring contrasts, sharply designating borders light and dark. In this respect its painting reminds the color drawing, sometimes, as for example, in "The going woman", finds out similarity to application.
The validity on cloths appears condensed in colorful hyperboles, reaching heights of pathetic sounding. Its palm tree put in the centre of a canvas, it is proud uplifting over poor dwellings the leaves which remind a violent colorful fountain, with force beating of a trunk upwards and in breadth, it seems an embodiment of spontaneous power of the nature, really "a life tree". So the by, through specific activization of the picturesque form, Сарьян comes to a condensation ordinary-real to eternal poetic symbols.
As a direction of Russian painting of the beginning of XX century "the Blue rose" is closest to symbolism poetics. A basis of this affinity is basic installation on transformation of images of the validity on purpose to exclude possibility of literal perception of things and the phenomena, having cleared in them not ordinary, high communications and values.
In the fine arts it pours out in predilection for any transformations in sphere of visual perception - to sharp perspective reductions and the unexpected foreshortenings altering the form of subjects, to reflex ions in water, on glass, in mirrors, to the stuffy vibration dissolving contours, etc.
The theatre becomes sphere of the most effective any more only visual, and universal transformation of the validity at that time. It has appeared that soil where painting of "the Blue rose" and symbolism have met directly. The most interesting variant of this dialogue of painting with symbolism at theatre represents N.N.Sapunova's creativity (1880-1912).
Together with other master of "the Blue rose" - S.J.Sudejkinym (1882-1946) it became the designer of symbolical dramas first in Russia M.Meterlinka (at Theatre-studio MHT on Cook, 1905). Cooperation with from here originates. Мейерхольдом - in statements "Гедды Габлер" Ibsen, "Балаганчика".
On the other hand, "the magic of theatre", forcing to worry artificial, invented and fantastic as original and live, it is transferred to easel painting. So there is a whole group of the products written "apropos" of corresponding theatrical performances.
The romantic artist who has become isolated in the world, created by whims of imagination, starts to accept generations of own imagination for the validity. There is a transformation symbolical "the magic world" in "buffoonery" - are that "теза" and the symbolism "antithesis", noted by the Block in 1910, and still earlier, in the 1906 which have become by a theme of a lyrical drama "Балаганчик", which statement made out. From the moment of work on this performance at creativity constantly there are elements of exhibition buffoonery, baste stylization and grotesque. These tendencies reach the apogee in not finished picture "Tea drinking" (1912)
"A jack of diamonds"
The boundary is noted 1910-1911 by occurrence on arena of an art life of new grouping under the causing name "a jack Of diamonds". A constant kernel of the society which have existed actually till 1916, the artists P.Konchalovsky, I.Mashkov, A.Lentulov, A.Kuprin, R.Falk who have become subsequently by visible masters of the Soviet art have made. "The jack of diamonds", the having charter, exhibitions, collections of articles, was a new influential direction in Russian art of the beginning of XX century
The impressionism in all its updating was simultaneously and a starting point of art development, and that creative method in which overcoming artists of "a jack of diamonds" saw the priority. From the very beginning they act as furious opponents of previous art - "the art World", the refined psychologist of painting of "the Blue rose" are rejected from a threshold. At the heart of discontent of young artists with a state of affairs in the modern art social motives - crisis in Russia, with especial force shown in revolution 1905-1907, and come then years of reaction (1907 - 1910) laid. This discontent with a "twilight" epoch was expressed in отвержении all vague, mysterious, held back in art.
In a counterbalance of symbolical painting of "the Blue rose" artists of "a jack Of diamonds" aspired to express most considerably movement from concentration on subjective not clear sensations to finding of stability of a vision, colors, to the constructive logic of picture construction. The statement of a subject and concreteness in a spatiality counterbalance makes an initial principle of their art.
In this connection painting of subjects - a still-life is put forward on the first place. Polemic problems of painting of "a jack of diamonds" have found especially bright embodiment in creativity of one of group I.I founders. Mashkov (1881 - 1944). "Dark blue plums" (1910) it is possible to consider it as the original slogan of this directi