The Russian transition to a market system

Important place in the transformation process in Eastern Europe has been privatized, which together with other socio-economic changes contributed to

The Russian transition to a market system

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actor can lead to a sharp slowdown in economic growth and a rising backlog of leading countries.of structural constraints amplified unresolved a number of social and institutional problems. Among the most important of them14:

High level of social inequality and regional differentiation;

Maintain a high level of risk of doing business in Russia, including high levels of corruption and administrative barriers, inadequate protection of property rights, an intricate system of land relations, Low corporate culture;

Poorly developed forms of self-organization and self-regulation of business and society, the low level of confidence, coupled with low efficiency of public administration;

Low level of competition in a number of markets Without creating incentives for businesses to improve productivity and competitiveness;

Inadequate development of the national innovation system, the weak link between education, science and business.decided in recent years, the task of creating an institutional framework of market economy and post-crisis recovery of production, ensuring macroeconomic stability, Russia, on the one hand, Was able to set ambitious strategic development goals through the use of new opportunities, on the other - was faced with the need to address the remaining critical issues and overcome the marked long-term challenges.


2.3 Targets


The strategic goal is to achieve a level of economic and social development, the appropriate status of Russia as the world's leading powers of the XXI century, with an attractive lifestyle, Is at the forefront of global economic competition and secure the national security and the realization of the constitutional rights of citizens. In 2015-2020 years, Russia should enter the top five leading countries in terms of GDP.this goal means building a brand new "vision of the future of Russia by the end of the next decade.15

Out of Russia on the standards being developed. Summary measure of living standards, GDP per capita at purchasing power parity, will increase from 13,700 U.S. dollars in 2006 (42% of the average OECD) to 30 thousand dollars in 2020 (70%) and about 50 thousand dollars 2030. Average life expectancy will increase to 75 years.

High quality and comfortable living conditions. Will ensure universal access to education and health services that meet the level of most developed countries, the average level of housing provision will be in 2020 30 - 35 sum. m. per person (or about 100 sq ft. for the average family)

Enabling human habitats. Percentage of population living in areas with adverse environmental conditions decreased from 43% in 2007 to 14% in 2020;

Changing social structure in favor of the middle class, reduce economic disparities populations and a sharp reduction in poverty.

Innovative leadership of Russia in the world based on advanced research and development, high technology and educational services. Russia should occupy a significant position in the markets of high-tech goods (not less than 10 per cent) and intellectual services of 4-6 and larger items. Will create the conditions for the mass emergence of new companies in all sectors of the economy, primarily in the sectors of the knowledge economy;

Leadership of Russia in energy supplies to world markets, including through geographic and product diversification of supply, Turning Russia into a logistics center of the global energy infrastructure and a key player making rules for the functioning of global energy markets.

Creation of an extensive transport network that provides high spatial mobility of population and the global competitiveness of Russia's transport markets.

Russia's leadership in the integration processes in Eurasia, turning into one of the global centers of world economic ties, including as a world financial center.

A new model of spatial development of Russia through the establishment of new regional growth centers and reduce regional disparities.

to guarantee the realization of the constitutional rights of citizens, including an advanced system of democratic institutions, the availability of effective enforcement mechanisms and systems to ensure national achieve this goal is to move the Russian economy from export commodities to innovative community-oriented type of development. This will dramatically increase the competitive potential of the Russian economy by building on its comparative advantages in science, education and high technologies, and on this basis, tap new sources of economic growth and welfare. Formation of an innovative economy means transformation of intelligence, of human creativity in the leading factor in economic growth and national competitiveness, along with a significant increase in the efficiency of natural resources and productive capital. Source of higher incomes is not only an opportunity to obtain rents from natural resources and world markets, but also the production of new ideas, technologies and social innovation.way of development can increase social stability and justice in society, as the gains from economic growth not only gets a narrow segment of society involved in the assignment of rent, and export revenues, but also the main social groups associated with the development of infrastructure of agrarian complex, Basic industries and the production of man himself. In this case, strengthening of social orientation of economic development based on the enhancement of national competitiveness and efficiency, not redistribution of existing wealth and social confrontation.socio-oriented type of growth has a number of qualitative and quantitative characteristics reflecting the peculiarities of its key factors. This growth, based on16:

Diversification of the economy, the structure of which the leading role goes to the branches of "knowledge economy" and high-tech industries. The share of high-tech sector and the knowledge economy in GDP should be at least 17-20% (2006 - 10, 5%), the contribution of innovators in the annual GDP growth - at least 2-3 percentage points (2006 - 1, 3);

improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the economy, without a significant increase of production resources. Labor productivity is expected to increase by 2020 in 2, 4-2, 6 times (by sector - up to 4 times), and energy efficiency - in 1, 6-1, 8 times;

High innovation activity of companies associated with the development of new markets, upgrading product range, development of new technologies, creating new forms of business organization. The share of industrial enterprises engaged in technological innovation, should increase to 40-50% (2005 - 9, 3%), and innovative products in total output - up to 25-35% (2005 - 2, 5%);

Revitalization of basic and applied research and development at radically increasing their effectiveness. Gross domestic expenditure on research and development should go up to 3, 5-4% of GDP in 2020 (2006 - 1% of GDP);

Improving the quality of human capital and its efficient use, that is characterized by faster growth of wages of skilled workers. The average monthly wage in the economy would increase in 2020 up to 2700 dollars (2007 - 526 U.S. dollar);

Rapid growth of industries that provide human development, especially education and health. Expenditure on education from public and private sources - 5, 5-6% of GDP in 2020 (2006 - 4,6%), health care - 6,5-7% of GDP in 2020 (2006 - 3,9 %), which is comparable to most developed countries.


2.4 Direction of the transition to an innovative community-oriented type of development

of the transition to an innovative community-oriented type of development is that Russia will have to simultaneously solve the problems and catching up, and advanced development. In the context of global competition and open economy can not catch up with developed countries in terms of welfare and efficiency, without providing advance a breakthrough development in those sectors of Russian economy that define its specialization in the global economy and allow the maximum extent possible to realize the national competitive advantage.transition from the export of raw materials to an innovative type of economic growth associated with the formation of a new mechanism and Social Development. One of the internal contradictions of the current growth model is that significant, outpacing GDP growth, rising incomes and welfare of the population relies heavily on the assignment of natural resource rents - windfall profits from export of hydrocarbons and raw materials. This growth in wealth is inevitably accompanied by increasing economic stratification of the population, a violation of the principles of social justice, critically important for Russian society. At the same time, objectively increasing social demands of different social groups, including not participating in the distribution and assignment of natural resource rents. Removal of this conflict requires the formation of new mechanisms of social development, balanced with the resource capabilities of the economy and its innovation performance. The basis of this balance - to connect business freedom, social justice and national competitiveness.approach requires the implementation of complex, interconnected resource, timing and phasing changes in the following areas of transition of the Russian economy to an innovative community-oriented type of development.17

The first area - the development of human potential in Russia. On the one hand, it is providing an enabling environment for the development of individual abilities, improving living conditions and quality of social environment to another - increasing the competitiveness of human capital and ensuring its social s

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