The Russian transition to a market system

Important place in the transformation process in Eastern Europe has been privatized, which together with other socio-economic changes contributed to

The Russian transition to a market system

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e market economy presupposes its restructuring. It represents a set of measures aimed at redistribution of the resource potential for the development and qualitative renewal of economic growth. Transformative process is designed to work simultaneously on several levels of the economy: industry, regional, technological, organizational, managerial, and social. The ultimate goal of restructuring the economy - is to achieve the optimal structure corresponding to social needs.experience of successful structural changes in the economy shows that a key aspect of restructuring is to support those areas of the national economy, which may be carriers of economic growth in the global market. The leading countries of the world change the structure of production and world trade, increasing its share of more technology-intensive and knowledge-intensive products. Hence the need not just a restructuring under the influence of market processes, and structural adaptation to the world economy and work out effective measures to improve the competitiveness of domestic enterprises.adjustment is particularly necessary in Russia. So far in the country is dominated by raw materials, the extractive industries. In the near term growth opportunities would be limited because, above all, an out-dated logistics industry and the low level of investment. No accident that in Russia currently the industry average aggregate performance of 25% compared with Western companies, energy intensity of production is 4 times higher. Life of the equipment in 2, 5 times exceeds standards, more than two thirds of assets out of date.5

Structural changes in the modern economy of Russia require a legal framework, focused on the efficiency of businesses. In the Russian legislation, there are numerous gaps in the normative regulation. The lack of a legally set of laws, so they often contradict each other. Among the main directions of improving the legal security of business entities at the present stage should be made: Providing a unified legal field, the development of a system of legal norms, the creation of reliable mechanisms for the implementation of laws.formation of an open economy, its occurrence in the world economy requires both the rejection of extreme protectionism and effective support to domestic industries and enterprises at all levels of management. Openness should always be commensurate with the interests of domestic one of the most important functions of the modern Russian state.

transitive economy innovative foreign

1.2 Foreign experience of transition


In the process of post-socialist transformation involves more than 20 states of the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and Asia. In the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the transition to a market economy was carried out using different models - from "shock therapy" to an active state intervention in economic management. For example, in Armenia in the early 90's fully promote private sector growth. Since the second half of the 90s.Emphasis on structural changes in the economy, de-monopolization of stock market development and the formation of a modern banking sector. There is creates conditions for the inflow of foreign capital. In Belarus, special attention is paid to the regulated transition of an earthenware pot, preserving state control over economy. In Ukraine, the transition to a market is hampered by a high proportion of heavy industry.the Soviet collapse in a relatively prosperous state were some of the republics of Central Asia. In the structure of their economies are dominated by agriculture and light industry, which, compared with heavy industry is easier to subject to market reform.progress in market reforms have made the countries of Eastern Europe embarked on the path of market reforms much earlier than Russia. In the early 90's. Most of them have successfully implemented economic liberalization and privatization of the toll. The conditions for reforms here were generally more favourable than in our country. During the administrative-command system in Eastern Europe remained the elements of a market economy as the private sector and private enterprise. The structure of the economy was more balanced: Had developed light and food industries, and the proportion of heavy industry was lower than in Russia. Enterprises of the military-industrial complex did not play a big role in the economy. In addition, the relatively rapid formation of the foundations of market systems, improve the "controllability" contributed to the small size of the Eastern European economies and the inflow of foreign capital. This will considerably ease the transition to a market system, in particular the implementation of financial stabilization. In Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the early 90's was effectively carried out "shock therapy". Thus, in the Czech Republic 2-3 years after the reforms the rate of inflation fell to 10% per year.6

Important place in the transformation process in Eastern Europe has been privatized, which together with other socio-economic changes contributed to overcoming the economic crisis. In the mid 90's. Almost all Eastern European countries emerging transformational recession entered the stage of economic growth.transition from recession to growth in these countries contributed to7:)The rapid expansion of the "new private sector" that is, private companies created in recent years with "zero" in the light and food industries. They do not require large capital investments are focused primarily on consumer demand;)A large influx of foreign capital. At new factories built by foreign companies with high technical equipment, is rapidly increasing production;)Clean-up of banks and enterprise restructuring. As a result, the banks got rid of "bad" debt by the debtor companies. Simultaneously there was a union of banks impose stricter regulation of banking activities. Enterprise restructuring was aimed at a wide range of measures to improve its operations: Isolation from the business viable and nonviable structural units, privatization, dismissal of employees, selection of managers, looking for investors, the modernization and development of new products, marketing organizations, etc.;)Selective structural policy: state support of potentially competitive enterprises., this has greatly solved the problem of financial stabilization, liberalization and institutional reforms8:interest is the experience of market reforms in China. This process began there in the late 70's. In developing reform programs were developed principles for their implementation: E to copy the experience of other countries that rely mainly on their own resources, to preserve the socialist socio-economic order, make changes gradually and comprehensively, to avoid the social, political, and psychological upheavals in society.that the bulk of the population lives in the countryside, reform was decided to start with them. The peasants have the right to rent land. With the deepening of the reform period contracts for land use is prolonged. This stimulated the long-term investment in allotments. Now ownership of the land was inherited. Land formally is in collective ownership, and in fact - has been privatized. Peasants receive mandatory stable jobs for the sale of the state of several kinds of products. The remaining products are sold on the open market at market prices.industry, the task of privatization was not posed. The reforms are carried out through decentralized control. Significant role in China's economy is state. Pricing is based on a combination of market and state prices. The state sets the prices of the most important kinds of strategic products and services. Exercise tight control of the monetary system. At the same time attach great importance to private sector development, particularly in retail trade and services sectors. Production and sales of approximately are half of all goods by market constraints and prices. A proliferation of commodity is exchanges.1992, it embarked on the establishment of mixed forms of ownership. In this case, public ownership remains dominant. It allowed corporatization of state ownership, attracting foreign capital, a merger of enterprises of different ownership forms.a result of the reforms in China has formed a two-sector model of the economy. Market mechanisms were the main regulators in the production of consumer goods and largely cover the production of investment goods. At the same time the State has not waived and the planned management practices. Until now, there are policy plans and the planned provision of material resources.9

Reforms have led to significant economic growth in China. The average annual GDP growth rate is about 10%. Since the early 80's. China has already entered the top ten countries in the world and in the next few years to catch up with advanced Western countries. The country has a relatively low unemployment. In society there is no social upheaval. Raising living standards is particularly noticeable in agricultural areas. Thanks to the "open economy" foreign trade volumes have increased five-fold increased exports. It created quite a large sector of the economy, foreign-owned., in China, there are quite a few serious problems. "Narrow" place in the economy remains the public sector. Here, approximately 40% of enterprises are unprofitable, there are due to subsidies. Many experts see a way out of the inevitability of privatization, but it will cause social upheaval.experience suggests that the key to solving the problems should be written not so much the pace of market reforms, as in 1913 the concept of these changes in their quality of certainty and direction.general, summing up, we emphasize that in Russia, foreign experience i

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