Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation.PETERSBURG STATE ENGINEERING-ECONOMIC UNIVERSITYof Economic Theory and National Economy
COURSEWORKthe subject "Economic theory"
on the theme: « The Russian transition to a market system»
Performed Student Andreyanova Alexandra: Ph.D. German L. A.
St. Petersburg 2011
. The Russian transition to a market system
.1 Concept and program of transitive economy
.2 Foreign experience of transition
. Strategic reference points of long-term economic development
.1 Strategic reference points of long-term economic development
.2 Challenges of the upcoming long term
2.4 Direction of the transition to an innovative community-oriented type of development
The system of market relations is the most universal management model that creates the conditions for achieving the maximum economic benefit at both the macro and micro levels.market economy in modern conditions - is a system of economic organization across the country, based on commodity-money relations, diversity of ownership, Economic freedom and competitiveness of citizens (as owners of its workforce) and business entities in the production and sale of goods and services.of market relations between producers and consumers, buyers and sellers make everyone's freedom in choosing a business partner, free movement of goods and services, financial capital and labor within the Common Economic Space. Regardless of market relations are organizations and institutions to non-production sphere, which function at the expense of budget allocations, even though they have (may have) additional income from providing services on a commercial basis.Russia's economy from the beginning was focused on the transition to liberal market model. The first practical steps in this direction were expressed in the liberalization of economic activity and prices (starting from 1992. prices by 90% Goods and Services have been fully exempted from state interference), the lifting of restrictions in pay, the accelerated privatization of state enterprises. It was understood that it is self-regulating mechanism of the emerging market system will put everything and everyone in their "niches" and create a new structure of the economy, a new division of labor in the Russian economy.
Chapter 1. The Russian Transition to a Market System
1.1Concept and Program of Transitive Economy
Transitive economy - a special condition in economy evolution when it functions in transition from one economic system to another. Here there are changes not in the settled system, and transition from one system of the organization of an economy to another.of transitive economy are shown first of all in globality occurring changes. All is subject to changes: property relations, a way of distribution of resources, motivation, the purposes and means of economic development, valuable orientations the population, economic and social institutes. The economic structure of the transition economy is characterized by mutual interlacing and mutual influence of different segments. In one dominated by elements of the original level - planned system, in the other - end- stage - market system, in the third-a symbiosis of elements of the two systems. Economic processes are changing in the direction of strengthening market and weakening of the administrative-command system elements. Therefore, a typical feature of the transition period, in the first place, is the volatility and instability. They are so violate the stability of the system, weakening it, that in the end, it gives way to the other economic system., for the economy in transition characterized by the appearance of special economic transition forms, in particular, multi- structure. Along with the state in the transition period are the development of the small commodity and private capitalist structures. An example of imperfection of the transition of economic forms in this period can serve as joint- stock form of ownership. At first she only looks like a joint- stock company into market-developed systems. Prevailing here closed joint- stock companies, are in fact a kind of nomenclature-corporate ownership.the increasing degree of development of the economies transitional forms are gradually beginning to increasingly meet the economy of market type., the transition economy is characterized by the distinctive character of contradictions. There are contradictions of the old and new elements of the emerging and moribund economy, various layers of the society. The resolution of these contradictions in the end, leads to the change of the economic system., the fourth - the historicity of economic transition, that is its transitory nature, which is followed by a period of mature development of the economic system. The duration of the transition depends on the conditions of economic transition and on the characteristics of a region or a country.1
A number of changes in transition for all countries is the inevitable character and acts as patterns. Call the major ones.liberalization of economic relations - is abolishing the state monopoly on economic activity, the transition to competitive market conditions, pricing substantially in accordance with supply and demand, the formation of factor markets, the emancipation of business, to create equal opportunities for business activity of economic subjects.transformation - adoption of an adequate market conditions of economic legislation, altering property relations through privatization and formal and informal business environment, the emergence of new business entities (commercial banks, Commodity and stock exchanges, investment funds, etc.).reforms - is eliminating disparities in the sectorial structure of the economy, the development of products that are in demand in domestic and foreign markets.stabilization - control of inflation, maintaining a high level of employment, continued high growth rates (at least 5-7% per year), guaranteeing equitable distribution of income and property, creation of necessary infrastructure, the formation of a balanced balance of payments if they normal balance of current payments, balancing the state budget, etc. 2
The formation of appropriate market economy of social security of the population - the transition from equal distribution to targeted social assistance to needy members of society, while simultaneously relieving companies of the implementation of broad social functions.for transition economies the laws differently manifested in different conditions. Keep this in mind when designing programs to reform the economic system in transition. For example, the liberalization of economic relations can get rid of deficits, and inefficient nationalization of the economy. However, the establishment of liberal market institutions is the only means for the adoption of new mechanisms of appropriation and distribution., a transition must be created such economic relations and mechanisms that are targeted to all economic actors do not so much on increasing the volume of production, how to improve the quality of life.the beginning of the reform, the 90 century, and our economic system actually had a market attributes and in this sense is no longer in transition. The overwhelming majority of the gross domestic product is produced in the private sector. Russia received official status as a market economy. We should recognize the irreversibility of fundamental economic and political changes and the inability to return to the socialist past, at least in its old form., it must be noted that the functioning of market institutions in the Russian economy still does not meet modern requirements for the organization of the national economy. Institutionally imperfect market economies require further reform. Crisis of 1998 has completed the period of formation of the classical "wild market" by putting the most pressing problem the problem of translation of market relations in a civilized fashion.the most common form of this process is aimed: A) to achieve economic growth, High competitiveness on the basis of creating a competitive environment and economic restructuring, and b) to establish an effective legal system (primarily in the sphere of economic freedom and the protection of business), and c) the formation of an open economy.3
Creating a competitive environment requires a prerequisite. Among them, we distinguish: Dispersion of market power; variety of business entities, government support for entrepreneurship, effective information provision and access to technology; training and retraining, changes in their motivational orientation toward the psychology of the market type.competitive environment enhances competitiveness. Competitiveness - a relatively new concept to the Russian reality, meaning the ability of businesses to confront their rivals in the market better and cheaper goods and services within the national economy and beyond. In the ranking of competitiveness of 59 countries while Russia occupies 55th place. Among the Russian companies 34% consider themselves to be competitive in the domestic market and only 7% - on the international market.4
Establishing an effectiv