The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual trad...

To force the laws to work in a natural state, the nature has given everyone an opportunity to judge violated

The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual trad...


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I would like to point out his idea, it was proved that this way is totally wrong to rule. Fascism, Stalinism and the decade of Mousallini bring so many evil, suffering and millions of victims of its regimes. Moreover, Hobbes understands that this approach would be terribly face by people, however he continue to persuade. " In absolute authority there is nothing burdensome, that the human establishments can not exist without some inconveniences. These inconveniences depend on the citizens, instead of from authority. ”Encouragement of any sort crafts, as navigation, agriculture, fishery, and all industries showing demand for working hands ." Yes, this are the positive intents, but we know to what extent it comes 50-60 years ago. The arms race, directed society, not only lack of freedom but the fear to be executed if you are opposite the regime. It is very like the feudal times. So, I consider this ideas unacceptable not only nowadays but the appliance of it in past was the one of the greatest mistake of the humankind.





Jean-Jacques Rousseau

“As soon as the service to a society ceases to be the main business of the citizens and they prefer to serve to it by their purses, instead by their-self , - the State is already close to destruction”

“About the social contract.”

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

His social and political sights are stated in such works as: " The Reasoning on a question: whether the revival of sciences and arts clearing of customs promoted? " (1750), " The Reasoning on an origin and bases of an inequality between the people " (1754), " About political economy " (1755), " The Judgement about the eternal world ". However, his major work is “About the social contract” “Rousseau proves with briefly and strongly language that the just state and the morality themselves arise by effort of our rational abilities”.

The problems of a society, state and right are covered in the Rousseau doctrine from the positions of a substantiation both protection of a principle and ideas of the national sovereignty. In a natural condition, according to Rousseau , there is no private property, all are free and equal. An inequality here in the beginning only physical, caused by natural distinctions of the people. However with occurrence of a private property and social inequality, the struggle between poor and rich begins. After destruction of equality follows, according to Rousseau “the terrible distempers unjust captures of the rich, robberies of the poor” . Characterizing it the nature condition, Jean-Jacques writes: " the Arising society has come in a condition of the most terrible war: the human sort, got stuck in defects and despaired, could not already neither return back nor refuse from unfortunate purchases made by them ".

The exit from such situation is in the agreement on creation of state authority and laws, to which will submit all. “There is only one law, which itself demands for the unanimous consent”.

Rousseau didnt deny the private property but at the same time acts for relative alignment of a property rule and criticizes luxury and surpluses, polarization of riches and poverty. The general will lays in a basis of the public contract and competences of the formed sovereignty. He acknowledges the laws are made only by the general will. The general will, according to Rousseau is expressed throw the nowadays system. Liberalism is the one of the main base. However, this system is not perfect. “….people think that they are free: they are hard mistaken. They are free only during the election of the Parliament: as Parliament has been elected they are slaves , no more”.

On the contrary , Rousseau express the ideas which we are know like anarchism. “There is not and there can not be no basic law, obligatory for the people, for them even the public contract is not obligatory”. Such controversial points of views I think arose from the willing for the logical explanation of the transfer from the nature condition to a state. The mutual utility is the basic principle of the system. " If it is necessary for the State, that you have died , you should die, because only that you lived till now in safety and consequently that the life is not only the benefit of a nature, but also gift received by you on certain conditions from the State ".

By the doctrine about the law as expression of general will and about legislative authority as a prerogative of the not alienated national sovereignty, concept of the public contract and principles of organization of the state Rousseau has rendered huge influence on the subsequent development of a state legal idea and social - political practice. His doctrine became one of the basic ideological sources during preparation and realization of the French Bourgeois Revolution.



Locke, Rousseau and Hobbes represent their views of nature state, the government system and the issue on the humankinds development. In some cases the have similar issues on the problems, in some they have completely opposite points of view. Lets revise as I think the main contributions of this great people.

After the social contract we retain the right to life and liberty, and gain the right to just, impartial protection of our property, according to Locke. There is an strong opportunity to control the power, the government could be easily overthrow. Hobbes think that the power can not do something wrong, because lawful and unlawful, good and evil, are merely commands, merely the will of the ruler. The liberal movements are hardly available. Roughly saying Hobbes's theory has far more in common with fascism, than it does with Locke's theory . In the treatise Rousseau has described the ideal state, in which the people, having given back the forces, freedom and property in a name of a society, receive in exchange civil freedom, equality, legislative authority and protection. Any ideal is unattainable. May be , one the of the main similarities in theirs theories is that they dont believe that government organized thought the Church can rule successfully. They abandoned that the kings power is come directly from the god. The king was no more a divine power.

However, the thoughts of Rousseau, Locke and Hobbes influenced somehow or other the development of the humankind. History knows a lot things closely connected with their theories. Some experiences were successful some were not. But, I am sure that this philosophers would be studied many centuries further, because their key issues are the base of the political philosophy. After all, I can confidently say that they have shaped the western intellectual tradition.






















Used material:

1)”About philosophy”. Wolff R.P

2)”The appearance of the state” .The work for a degree. Danilov A.N

3) “The History of Law and Political study” . V.S.Nerseiansa.

4)The parts of the Lockes, Hobbes and Rousseaus works from the Reader.

5)Different websites with works of above mentioned philosophers.

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