Because commentary is an oral reporting of ongoing activity, it is unlike other kinds of narrative which are typically reported in past time. Indeed, it is unlike any other kind of speech situation. US linguist Charles Ferguson (1983, p. 156) captured its uniqueness when he described radio sports casting as a monolog or dialog-on-stage directed at an unknown, unseen, heterogeneous mass audience who voluntarily choose to listen, do not see the activity being reported, and provide no feedback to the speaker. If such a strange activity is to survive, and to be successful in maintaining fluency and listener interest, it needs special linguistic features. Sports commentary is not identified by its vocabulary: sporting terms and idioms can be found elsewhere, such as in press reports and everyday chat. Other factors are more distinctive:is extremely fluent, keeping up with the pace of the activities. The rate is steady, and there is little sign of hesitation noises, false starts, comment clauses, nonsense words, and other features of spontaneous speech. The prosody is suited to the sport, reflecting the atmosphere and drama. Some very unusual prosodies can be heard, and speeds of articulation which differ greatly from everyday conversations (both slower and faster). Some sports (such as horse racing) may be spoken in a monotone, either loudly (as in horse racing) or softly (as in snooker). Others make use of wide variations in pitch range (as in football or baseball). A commentator may have a favorite way of pointing a commentary, and idiosyncrasy can be strong. Distinctive grammar is seen in the use of the Present tense (he sends it back); the omission of elements of sentence structure (Gooch in close), inverted word order (over at third is Smith), and extra modifiers (The quiet Texan Tommy John delivers ; and Smith, who `s scored well this season, runs back). The frequent use of the Passive is another survival ` device: often commentators see a play before they can identify the player, and the Passive (perhaps with a tell-tale pause) allows them to delay mentioning the player `s name (His shot is blocked by Jones).structure is cyclical, reflecting the way most games consist of recurring sequences of short activities (as in cricket, tennis, and baseball) or a limited numbers of activity options (as in the various kinds of football ). In racing, the structure is even simpler, the cycling here regularly informing the listener of the varying order of the competitors, with each loop ` of the cycle introduced by its own formulae. This is a state of play summary, crucial for listeners viewers who have just switched on or who have simply lost track of what is happening.
.1.4 Commercial Advertisingadvertising is the largest and most visible form of advertising; but by no means the only one. Political speeches, sermons, and several other uses of language can be said to be selling something. There is also an overlap with announcements, such as births and deaths (a type of prestige advertising), legal notices, health warnings, and other items whose functions are chiefly to inform. But commercial advertising stands out stylistically on several counts. Like literature, it can employ other varieties of language in its service: any fragments of the human condition (and a fair amount of non-human condition) can be found in an add. Lexically, it tends to use words which are vivid (new, bright), concrete (soft, washable), positive (safe, extra), and universal (best, perfect). Grammatically, it is typically conversational and elliptical and often, as a result, vague (A better deal [than what?] It uses highly figurative expressions (taste the sunshine in K Y peaches), deviant graphology (Beanz Meanz Heinz), and strong sound effects, such as rhythm, alliteration, and rhyme, especially in slogans. It can make effective use of word-play. On television it is also likely to be dramatized and vocalized. Radio uses sound effects, songs and accents to provide a varied brand-name profile.
.2 Analysis of brief news items
newspapers use in two stylistic devices as "Newspaper style (mass media) Belles-lettres style, Newspaper style special graphical means are used to attract the readers attention. Belles-lettres style the richest register of communication besides its own language means, other styles can be used besides informative and persuasive functions, belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader are aesthetically. Newspaper style Meaning from stylistics point of view. Types of meaning (logical, emotive, nominal)
Lexically, it tends to use words which are vivid (new, bright), concrete (soft, washable), positive (safe, extra), and universal (best, perfect). Grammatically, it is typically conversational and elliptical and often, as a result, vague (A better deal [than what?]). It uses highly figurative expressions (taste the sunshine in K Y peaches), deviant graphology (Beanz Meanz Heinz), and strong sound effects, such as rhythm, alliteration, and rhyme, especially in slogans. It can make effective use of word-play. On television it is also likely to be dramatized and vocalized. Radio uses sound effects, songs and accents to provide a varied brand-name profile. For example: Winter fresh wind "product name Orbit bubble gum" (this is Similar)
Commentarythe most frequent kinds of commentary are those associated with sports and games. Here, two elements need to be distinguished: the play-by-play commentary, and the colour-added commentary. The latter is important, for it provides an audience with pre-event background, post-event evaluation, and within-event interpretation. But there is little to be said about it stylistically: it is conversational in style, and often in dialogue form. Consider a fragment of colour commentary: It was two dollars before and I just think something`s wrong with those dividends that are showing up on our screen. They`ve got Speedy Cheval the favourite but I`m not exactly sure that that is correct, but anyway they`re in behind the mobile going towards the starting point now for the first heat of the Lion Brown Rising Star Three-Year-Old Championship just about there. For example: Stylistic interest in commentary lies chiefly in the play - by - play component. For example: The ball flew into the gate as a bullet (this is Similar)
The conversational tone may be achieved through the use of: informal lexicon (take a tumble, just a chance, odd rogue shower); everyday turns of phrase which ordinary people use about the weather (become a little bit quieter, turn colder) fuzzy expressions (more or less, round about); contracted verbs (it`s, that`s, we`ll); colloquial sentence connection (anyhow, in actual fact). Example: At the same time, the scientific element in the weather forecast message is evident in the numerical underpinning (eight degrees, minus one or minus two) and the reference to notions which are generally not found in the speech of the amateur (icy patches on untreated roads, well broken cloud, south-westerly wind.) And the last example Im took in the newspaper "The Sunday Times" and that's what's written example "How lust a caught a hot rabbit" this is (Metaphor) writing The Sunday Times in UK about one chiefs World Bank Association IMF (Dominique Strausskahns ) For year he is philandering was in bulged, details are emerging of the former IMF chiefs past.
conclusion, I would like to write that I have chosen, this theme because it was interesting, not only from the point of its but also of stylistic its characteristics. From all collected materials I have described Functional Styles, focusing on Newspaper Styles in English mass media texts. What is the Functional style? Functional styles (F.S) are the subsystems of language, each subsystem having its own peculiar features in what concern vocabulary means, syntactical constructions, and even phonetics. The appearance and existence of F.S is connected with the specific conditions of communication in different spheres of human life. So, The F.S They are five parts 1) Official "documents and papers" 2) Scientific "brochures, articles, other scientific publications" 3) Publicistic "essay, public speech" 4) Newspaper style "mass media" 5) Belles-lettres style "genre of creative writing".of mentioned here styles can be expressed in two forms: written and oral. Stylistics is a sides that examines the complex of stylistically marked elements of any language level.
1) Scientific style is employed in professional communication to convey some information. Its most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects, phenomena and processes characteristics of some particular field of science and technique. Also precision clarity logical cohesion.
) Official style is the most conservative one. It uses syntactical constructions and archaic words. Emotiveness is banned out of this style.