The peculiarities of news reports in English mass media texts

styles (FS) are the subsystems of language, each subsystem having its own peculiar features in what concern vocabulary means, syntactical

The peculiarities of news reports in English mass media texts

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he most interesting important thing in the story. English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phrase logical and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as 1. Brief news items and communiqués 2. Press reports (parliamentary, of court proceedings, etc.) 3. Articles purely informational in character; 4. Advertisements and announcements.

The most concise form of newspaper informational is the headline. The headlines of news items, apart from giving information about the subject matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement of the headline, the use of emotionally colored words and elements of emotive syntax), thus indicating the interpretation of the facts in the news item that follows.

Brief news items

The function of a brief news item is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of: 1. Special political and economic terms; 2. Non-term political vocabulary; 3. Newspaper cliché; 4. Abbreviations; 5. Neologisms. The following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as grammatical parameters of newspaper style: 1. Complex sentences with a developed system of clauses; 2. Verbal constructions; 3. Syntactical complexes; 4. Attributive noun groups; 5. Specific word order.

Advertisements and announcementsfunction of advertisement and announcement is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified (separate). In classified advertisements and announcements various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name.for the separate advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be pointed out. The editorial Editorials are an intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publistic style. The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Emotional coloring in editorial articles is also achieved with the help of various stylistic devices(especially metaphors and epithets), both lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.



Chapter 2. The peculiarities of News Reporting (Brief news items) in English mass media texts


.1 Mass Media Language

world of the media is an area where it is important not to confuse the object with the language. There are newspapers; there is radio; there is television. But there is no such thing as a variety of newspaper language; or of radio language; or of television language . The media reflect all aspects of the human condition, and make available to the public many varieties of language already well known elsewhere, such as those associated with religion, politics, science, and literature, and the more topic-directed aspects of conversation (for example: discussion, interview, debate, argument). When we apply the notion of a language variety to the media, we have to look within each product (a newspaper, a radio or TV channel) for uses of language which have been shaped by the nature of the medium, or whose purpose is to make use of the capabilities provided by the medium. And here, the communication and presentation of news is dominant.reporting of news, whether in the spoken or written media, reflects one of the most difficult and constraining situations to be found in the area of language use. The chief constraint is the perpetual battle against the pressures of time and space. These pressures are absolutes. To fit a column, 20 words need to be cut. To fit a radio window, 16 seconds of a script may need to go. There is no argument. If the writer of the original material does not meet the demand, someone else higher up the editorial chain of command will do it instead. The average news report, whether printed or broadcast, is the product of many hands , journalists, editors (chief / check / copy / page sub-editors), typesetters, proofreaders, compositors, printers. There are several distinctive linguistic features of the reporting. Most relate fairly to those who, when, where, what, how and why, which journalists bear in mind when compiling a story. The headline is critical, summarizing and drawing attention to the story. Its telegraphic style is probably the best-known feature of news reporting. The first (lead paragraph both summarizes and begins to tell the story. This paragraph is the source of the headline. The original source of the story is given, either in by-line (Reuters), or built into the text (A senior White House official said). The participants are categorized, their name usually being preceded by a general term (champ, prisoner, official) and adjectives (handsome French singer J. Bruno). Other features include explicit time and place location (In Paris yesterday), facts and figures (56 people were killed in a bomb blast), and direct or indirect quotations (PM bungles, says expert).


.1.1 Broadcastingcontrast with most newspapers, only a small part of radio and television output is devoted to news and its discussion (current affairs) as little as 5 per cent, on some channels but its significance is perceived to be far greater than this small figure suggests. The core element in this output is well-defined: the news bulletin, consisting of a series of items of varying size, often divided into sections (e.g. general, business, sport, weather), sometimes punctuated by advertising. Each of them fits into a format which may be of any length, but often as short as two minutes. Analysis of a typical day's radio or television broadcasting brings to light several varieties of language which are in use elsewhere. Indeed, probably all conceivable spoken varieties will be found at some point or other in the broadcasting media. If a use of language is important enough to develop predictable linguistic features, the situations to which they relate are undoubtedly going to be of regular interests to listeners and viewers. The only constraint is sensitivity to taboo words.


.1.2 Weather reporting

Is one of the best examples, especially on radio where, in its specialized form, it is reduced to its bare essentials, as a restricted language. The names of the Meteorological Office sea areas surrounding the British Isles provide British English with some of the most distinctive weather-forecasting lexicon. Along the well-known areas such as Irish Sea, Plymouth, Portland, Thames, there exist a great deal of new coinages applied to meteorological regions, for example, Viking, Cromarty, Dogger, Forties ( in the east), Shannon, Rock all, Bailey (in the west), or even more confusing phrases North Utsire and South Utsire (the western parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula). Most people know at least some of the names by heart, though few could locate more than a handful with any accuracy. Two contrasting styles informal and conversational or formal and formulaic are used on BBC Radio in weather forecasting. A successful weather forecast is a mixture of fluent spontaneity, controlled informality and friendly authority. The fluency is partly a matter of careful preparation, but is largely achieved through the broadcaster is ability to rely on formulaic phrasing (with light winds and largely clear skies, blue skies and sunshine, widespread frost) and on standard sequences of locations. The number of likely weather situations is really quite limited in a particular region, and certain combinations of features frequently recur.conversational tone may be achieved through the use of: informal lexicon (take a tumble, just a chance, odd rogue shower); everyday turns of phrase which ordinary people use about the weather (become a little bit quieter, turn colder) fuzzy expressions (more or less, round about); contracted verbs (its, that is, we`ll); colloquial sentence connection (anyhow, in actual fact). At the same time, the scientific element in the weather forecast message is evident in the numerical underpinning (eight degrees, minus one or minus two) and the reference to notions which are generally not found in the speech of the amateur (icy patches on untreated roads, well broken cloud, south-westerly wind).


.1.3 Commentary

Is one of the most distinctive of all uses of English. Its roles extend well beyond broadcasting. It will be heard in such varied contexts as fashion shows, race-course meetings, and cookery demonstrations. Within broadcasting the use of commentary extends beyond sporting occasions. It will be heard accompanying such public events as inaugurations, funerals and other processions.the most frequent kinds of commentary are those associated with sports and games. Here, two elements need to be distinguished: the play-by-play commentary, and the colour-added commentary. The latter is important, for it provides an audience with pre-event background, post-event evaluation, and within-event interpretation. But there is little to be said about it stylistically: it is conversational in style, a

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