The land down under

Australia (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>> <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>>e? <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>),%20officially%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Australia,%20is%20a%20country%20in%20the%20Southern%20Hemisphere%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Hemisphere>%20comprising%20the%20mainland%20of%20the%20Australian%20continent%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_(continent)>,%20the%20island%20of%20Tasmania%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tasmania>%20and%20numerous%20smaller%20islands%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_of_Australia>%20in%20the%20Indian%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Ocean>%20and%20Pacific%20Oceans%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Ocean>.%20It%20is%20the%20world's%20sixth-largest%20country%20by%20total%20area%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_outlying_territories_by_total_area>.%20Neighboring%20countries%20include%20Indonesia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia>,%20East%20Timor%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor>%20and%20Papua%20New%20Guinea%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea>%20to%20the%20north,%20the%20Solomon%20Islands%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Islands>,%20Vanuatu%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanuatu>%20and%20New%20Caledonia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Caledonia>%20to%20the%20northeast%20and%20New%20Zealand%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand>%20to%20the%20southeast.at%20least%2040,000%20years%20before%20European%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe>%20settlement%20in%20the%20late%2018th%20century,%20Australia%20was%20inhabited%20by%20indigenous%20Australians%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australians>,%20who%20belonged%20to%20one%20or%20more%20of%20roughly%20250%20language%20groups%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australian_languages>.%20After%20discovery%20by%20Dutch%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Republic>%20explorers%20in%201606,%20Australia's%20eastern%20half%20was%20claimed%20by%20Great%20Britain%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Great_Britain>%20in%201770%20and%20initially%20settled%20through%20penal%20transportation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penal_transportation>%20to%20the%20colony%20of%20New%20South%20Wales%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_South_Wales>%20from%2026%20January%201788.%20The%20population%20grew%20steadily%20in%20subsequent%20decades;%20the%20continent%20was%20explored%20and%20an%20additional%20five%20self-governing%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsible_government>%20Crown%20Colonies%20were%20established.1%20January%201901,%20the%20six%20colonies%20federated%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia>,%20forming%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Australia.%20Since%20Federation,%20Australia%20has%20maintained%20a%20stable%20liberal%20democratic%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_democracy>%20political%20system%20which%20functions%20as%20a%20federal%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism>%20parliamentary%20democracy%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_democracy>%20and%20constitutional%20monarchy%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy>.%20The%20federation%20comprises%20six%20states%20and%20several%20territories%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_and_territories_of_Australia>.%20The%20population%20of%2022.6%20million%20is%20heavily%20concentrated%20in%20the%20Eastern%20states%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_states_of_Australia>%20and%20is%20highly%20urbanized%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization_by_country>.highly%20developed%20country%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developed_country>,%20Australia%20is%20the%20world's%20thirteenth%20largest%20economy%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)>%20and%20has%20the%20world's%20seventh-highest%20per%20capita%20income%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita>.%20Australia's%20military%20expenditure%20is%20the%20world's%20twelfth%20largest%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_military_expenditures>.%20With%20the%20second-highest%20human%20development%20index%20globally%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index>,%20Australia%20ranks%20highly%20in%20many%20international%20comparisons%20of%20national%20performance,%20such%20as%20quality%20of%20life,%20health,%20education,%20economic%20freedom%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_freedom>%20and%20the%20protection%20of%20civil%20liberties%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_liberties>%20and%20political%20rights.%20Australia%20is%20a%20member%20of%20the%20G20%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G20>,%20OECD%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organisation_for_Economic_Co-operation_and_Development>,%20WTO%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Organization>,%20APEC%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia-Pacific_Economic_Cooperation>,%20UN%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations>,%20Commonwealth%20of%20Nations%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations>,%20ANZUS%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANZUS>,%20and%20the%20Pacific%20Islands%20Forum%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum>.%20[1]><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Hemisphere> comprising the mainland

The land down under

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tical system which functions as a federal <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism> parliamentary democracy <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_democracy> and constitutional monarchy <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy>. The federation comprises six states and several territories <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_and_territories_of_Australia>. The population of 22.6 million is heavily concentrated in the Eastern states <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_states_of_Australia> and is highly urbanized <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization_by_country>.highly developed country <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developed_country>, Australia is the world's thirteenth largest economy <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)> and has the world's seventh-highest per capita income <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita>. Australia's military expenditure is the world's twelfth largest <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_military_expenditures>. With the second-highest human development index globally <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index>, Australia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_freedom> and the protection of civil liberties <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_liberties> and political rights. Australia is a member of the G20 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G20>, OECD <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organisation_for_Economic_Co-operation_and_Development>, WTO <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Organization>, APEC <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia-Pacific_Economic_Cooperation>, UN <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations>, Commonwealth of Nations <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations>, ANZUS <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANZUS>, and the Pacific Islands Forum <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum>. [1]">[??st?・lj?, -li?] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_English_phonology>,%20the%20name%20Australia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_name_etymologies>%20is%20derived%20from%20the%20Latin%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin>%20australis,%20meaning%20"southern".%20The%20country%20has%20been%20referred%20to%20colloquially%20as%20Oz%20since%20the%20early%2020th%20century.%20Aussie%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aussie>%20is%20a%20common%20colloquial%20term%20for%20"Australian".of%20Terra%20Australis%20Incognita%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Australis>-an%20"unknown%20land%20of%20the%20South"-date%20back%20to%20Roman%20times%20and%20were%20commonplace%20in%20medieval%20geography,%20although%20not%20based%20on%20any%20documented%20knowledge%20of%20the%20continent.%20Following%20European%20discovery,%20names%20for%20the%20Australian%20landmass%20were%20often%20references%20to%20the%20famed%20Terra%20Australis.flag%20of%20Australia%20is%20a%20defaced%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defacement_(flag)>%20Blue%20Ensign%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Ensign>:%20a%20blue%20field%20with%20the%20Union%20Flag%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Flag>%20in%20the%20canton%20(upper%20hoist%20quarter),%20and%20a%20large%20white%20seven-pointed%20star%20known%20as%20the%20Commonwealth%20Star%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_Star>%20in%20the%20lower%20hoist%20quarter.%20The%20fly%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_terminology>%20contains%20a%20representation%20of%20the%20Southern%20Cross%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crux>%20constellation,%20made%20up%20of%20five%20white%20stars%20-%20one%20small%20five-pointed%20star%20and%20four,%20larger,%20seven-pointed%20stars.flag's%20original%20design%20was%20chosen%20in%201901%20from%20entries%20in%20a%20worldwide%20competition%20held%20following%20Federation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia>.%20It%20was%20first%20flown%20in%20Melbourne%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne>%20on%203%20September%201901.%20A%20slightly%20different%20design%20was%20approved%20by%20King%20Edward%20VII%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VII_of_the_United_Kingdom>[1]%20in%201902.%20Over%20the%20next%20few%20years,%20the%20exact%20specifications%20of%20the%20flag%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag>%20were%20changed%20several%20times%20both%20intentionally%20and%20as%20a%20result%20of%20confusion.%20The%20current%20specifications%20were%20formally%20gazetted%20in%201934,%20and%20in%201954%20the%20flag%20became%20recognized%20by,%20and%20legally%20defined%20in,%20the%20Flags%20Act%201953%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flags_Act_1953>[2],%20as%20the%20"Australian%20National%20Flag%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_flag>".[1]"> in Australian English <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_English>, the name Australia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_name_etymologies> is derived from the Latin <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> australis, meaning "southern". The country has been referred to colloquially as Oz since the early 20th century. Aussie <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aussie> is a common colloquial term for "Australian".of Terra Australis Incognita <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Australis>-an "unknown land of the South"-date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of the continent. Following European discovery, names for the Australian landmass were often references to the famed Terra Australis.flag of Australia is a defaced <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defacement_(flag)> Blue Ensign <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Ensign>: a blue field with the Union Flag <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Flag> in the canton (upper hoist quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_Star> in the lower hoist quarter. The fly <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_terminology> contains a representation of the Southern Cross <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crux> constellation, made up of five white stars - one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars.flag's original design was chosen in 1901 from entries in a worldwide competition held following Federation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia>. It was first flown in Melbourne <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne> on 3 September 1901. A slightly different design was approved by King Edward VII <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VII_of_the_United_Kingdom>[1] in 1902. Over the next few years, the exact specifications of the flag <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag> were changed several times both intentionally and as a result of confusion. The current specifications were formally gazetted in 1934, and in 1954 the flag became recognized by, and legally defined in, the Flags Act 1953 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flags_Act_1953>[2], as the "Australian National Flag <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_flag>".[1]

 

Unusual Australian Facts

 

. History

* Swimming - In 1838 it was declared illegal to swim at public beaches during the day! This law was enforced until 1902.

* The secret ballot was first used in Victoria and South Australia following the granting of responsible government. Other states introduced secret ballots as follows: 1856 - Victoria & South Australia 1858 - New South Wales & Tasmania 1859 - Queensland 1893 - Western Australia. The secret ballot was referred to as 'kangaroo voting'. World wide, secret voting is often referred to as the 'Australian ballot.

* Female vote - Australia was the second country to give women the vote.

* In 1932, Francis De Groot[3], a retired cavalry officer, managed to get himself selected as part of the honour guard at the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge[4]. When the ribbon was about to be cut, he galloped forward on his horse and slashed the ribbon with his sword, declaring the bridge open in the name of 'the decent citizens of New South Wales'. The ribbon was then tied back together and the ceremony continued. De Groot was carried off to a mental hospital, declared insane and later fined for the replacement cost of one ribbon.

* Independence for WA- In April 1933, 68 per cent of West Australians voted in favour of seceding from the Commonwealth of Australia. However, they needed permission from the British Parliament before they could officially become a new country. Meanwhile, Australia's Federal Parliament was arguing that Britain should not interfere in Australian politics. The end result was that Britain never made a decision. Consequently, Western Australian remained part of the Commonwealth.

* In 1954, Bob Hawke[6] was immortalised by the Guinness Book of Records[5] for sculling 2.5 pints of beer in 11 seconds. Bob later became the Prime Minister of Australia.

*Sir John Robertson[7], five times premier of New South Wales, drank a pint of rum every morning for 35 years. Later said: 'none of the men who have left footprints in this country have been cold water men.'

* Prime Minister Harold Holt went for a swim at Cheviot Beach, near Portsea on 17th December 1967, and was never seen again. The event has been referred to as 'the swim that needed no towel'.

* Until 1984, Australia's National anthem was "God save the Queen/King."

* Cartoonists - A cartoo

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