The grammar of contemporary English

words of language, depending on various formal and semantic features, are divided into grammatically relevant classes. The traditional grammatical classes

The grammar of contemporary English


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is an important problem in English language. How many parts of speech are there in English language?are 8 parts of speech: verb, noun, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection. But some grammar sources categorize English in to 9 or 10 parts of speech.some scholars question the validity of considering pronouns and numerals separate parts of speech in most languages, since words of these classes ordinarily vary in their syntactic functions and from this point of view belong to different word classes.this reason they are often considered sub classed of others parts of speech. Such a remark is often heard on this question. The topic of our research paper is parts of speech classification problem in Modern English. The relevance of the topic is comprehensive theoretical review of parts of speech, their means of expression, ordering of parts of speech.subject of the investigation is parts of speech classification problem in Modern English. An object of the investigation is students of IBA.and practical value of the term paper is comprehensive theoretical treatment of the parts of speech, how they are expressed in different kinds of texts, ordering of parts of speech, and the status of parts of speech.purpose of the study is to identify the most common essential categories of parts of speech in English grammar. In accordance with the purpose of the study we had the following objectives in this research paper. There are:

·to study the history of parts of speech

·to select the criteria on which parts of speech are assigned

·to review the work of scientists in the field of grammar

·to know the problems of the parts of speechproblem of parts of speech is one that causes great controversies between different scholars. A problem arose, however, because scholars could not agree on exactly what the parts of speech are. During this research paper we will try to figure out what are parts of speech, how to classify them, and what problems arise in this.


1. Parts of speech in English language

grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behavior of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes, which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all.all languages have the lexical categories noun and verb, but beyond these there are significant variations in different languages. For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has one; Chinese, Korean and Japanese have nominal classifiers whereas European languages do not; many languages do not have a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, adjectives and verbs (see stative verbs) or adjectives and nouns[citation needed], etc. This variation in the number of categories and their identifying properties entails that analysis is done for each individual language. Nevertheless the labels for each category are assigned on the basis of universal criteria. [1]


.1 Historical overview of the parts of speech problem and controversies


The classification of words into lexical categories is found from the earliest moments in the history of linguistics. In the Nirukta, written in the 5th or 6th century BCE, the Sanskrit grammarian Yāska defined four main categories of words:

·nāma - nouns or substantives

·ākhyāta - verbs

·upasarga - pre-verbs or prefixes

·nipāta - particles, invariant words (perhaps prepositions)

These four were grouped into two large classes: inflected (nouns and verbs) and uninflected (pre-verbs and particles).ancient work on the grammar of the Tamil language, Tolkappiyam, dated variously between 1st and 10th centuries CE, classifies wordsnin Tamil as

·peyar (noun),

·vinai (verb),

·idai (part of speech which modifies the relationships between verbs and nouns) and

·uri (word that further qualifies a noun or verb)century or two after the work of Nirukta, the Greek scholar Plato wrote in the Cratylus dialog that "... sentences are, I conceive, a combination of verbs [rhēma] and nouns [ónoma]". Another class, "conjunctions" (covering conjunctions, pronouns, and the article), was later added by Aristotle. By the end of the 2nd century BCE, the classification scheme had been expanded into eight categories, seen in the Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική) :: a part of speech inflected for case, signifying a concrete or abstract entity: a part of speech without case inflection, but inflected for tense, person and number, signifying an activity or process performed or undergone: a part of speech sharing the features of the verb and the noun: a part of speech expressing emotion alone: a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for person: a part of speech placed before other words in composition and in syntax: a part of speech without inflection, in modification of or in addition to a verb: a part of speech binding together the discourse and filling gaps in its interpretationLatin grammarian Priscian (fl. 500 CE) modified the above eightfold system, substituting "interjection" for "article". It was not until 1767 that the adjective was taken as a separate class. [1]English grammar is patterned after the European tradition above, and is still taught in schools and used in dictionaries. It names eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection (sometimes called an exclamation). Since the Greek grammarians of 2nd century BCE, parts of speech have been defined by morphological, syntactic and semantic criteria. However, there is currently no generally agreed-upon classification scheme that can apply to all languages, or even a set of criteria upon which such a scheme should be based. Linguists recognize that the above list of eight word classes is drastically simplified and artificial. For example, "adverb" is to some extent a catch-all class that includes words with many different functions. Some have even argued that the most basic of category distinctions, that of nouns and verbs, is unfounded, or not applicable to certain languages.[1]


.2 Parts of speech and different opinions of American and British scientists

modern English and American linguistics, there are 2 approaches to the separation of vocabulary. The first involves the allocation of parts of speech (parts of speech), and the second - word classes (word classes). "Parts of Speech" are the traditional term to describe different types of words that form a sentence, such as a noun, pronouns, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, the union, interjection. The criteria for their selection are considered to be the value, form and function. This approach is not flawless, native speakers have some difficulty in classifying individual words to the parts of speech.are combined in these groups in their combinatorial functions, morphological features, etc. The most common groups of words are a part of speech: noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, article, conjunction, interjection, demonstrative, the scientific literature of Great Britain and the United States is sometimes the case indistinguishable terminological word classes and parts of speech. It has been suggested that the term "part of speech" is outdated and does not reflect its essence, ie, association of individual words in the classes, taking into account their common morphology, semantics and role in the structure of the sentence. This view is based on the views of L. Bloomfield for a broader understanding of word classes, which include the traditional parts of speech, as well as various structural design (complex forms such as infinitives, participles, gerunds).English grammar of the XIX century. Most authors prefer English grammar parts of speech, the three systems, which are in Latin. In the first half of the XIX century, the most frequently encountered two of them, including: a) 9 parts of speech: article, noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection b) 10 parts of speech (article, noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and participle). Toward the end of the XIX century was popular Latin system of eight parts of speech: noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection. The absence of an article in this classification, some scientists explain the lack of an article in the Latin language. These scholars consider the type of article adjective.Diagrams. These schemes differ from traditional to their desire to take into account the various factors of grammatical (morphological and syntactic) character. The development of innovative schemes promoted a better understanding of the problems of parts of speechHere are some, in my opinion, the most interesting examples of non-traditional classifications of lexical structure of English.. Dougherty takes into account only two criteria: the significance and place in a sentence. He considers all of the words the ideas and the ideas of the name refers to the names. There are three types of ideas (and, hence, the name):

Ideas about things (words rank nominal) (nominal rank);

Ideas about the properties of things (adnominal rank);

Ideas to modify things (subadnominal rank)the ideas of things are understood nouns by ideas about the properties of ideas - articles, adjectives, pronouns, verb forms, w

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