The general knowledge of neologisms

and technical revolution as one of the major phenomena of the present makes essential changes to the linguistic model of

The general knowledge of neologisms


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workgeneral knowledge of neologisms



nature of the Universe loves nothing so muchto change the things which are and to make new things like them.

(Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)

neologism language english

Any language is a dynamic system, which constantly develops, transforms and changes. The processes in social, cultural, scientific and political life, the contemporary level of technology development and intercultural communication implies constant language evolution. Both linguistic and extralinguistic factors play a significant role in appearing new units in the language (neologisms). These new units help us to understand and cope with change by creating mental bridges between the old and the new. The language vocabulary is changing, renewing the words and phrases. Neologisms play a great role in the contemporary system of language and speech.term neologism is used by linguists to describe a new word, usage, or expression. It is often created by combining existing words or by using a word in a different context.Some neologisms have now become a part of Standard English, while others have faded away. In the same way, some of todays neologisms will become a part of the dictionaries of the 22nd century, while others will be discarded, replaced by more descriptive language.object of the research work is a neologism as a language unit.subject of the research is the peculiarities of using neologisms in different spheres of human activities, making close studying the computer neologisms. purpose of the research is to investigate the neologisms as language units. accordance with the purpose of the research there are the following tasks in the work:

-to determine the basic theoretical conceptions of the neologism;

-to investigate the classification and ways of formation of neologisms;

to analyze the spheres of usage of the neologisms;

to investigate the computer neologisms in particular and the peculiarities of their formation and translation.the present paper there were used the following methods of the research as analysis and synthesis, descriptive and comparative methods.list of neologisms found on the Internet resources is added in the Appendix. The list does not claim overall completeness or fullness, but it, however, can be the data of this research work. This list demonstrates different ways of computer neologisms formation and explains the meanings of these new words.

1. The general knowledge of neologisms


1.1From the history of notion and definition of neologism

modern word rapidly changes, so does the language of a speech. The language change reflects every aspect of the changing life as well. New inventions and new discoveries have to be named and need proper vocabulary. New words (or neologisms) are raised by creativity of our minds and come into existence in everyday communication. They appear all the time continuously.words table, sky once were neologisms. But soon they became vital and widespread to be felt neologisms. Names of different fruit, species were new names of new concepts (pea, cherry, pepper). The introduction of Christianity brought with it a great number of new concepts and words (church, candle). The Norman Conquest also contributed to the enrichment of the English vocabulary (army). development of industry, the development of technology, new inventions caused the appearance of new words (film, television, self-starter). A great number of neologisms appeared during the periods of great social upheavals (machine, bank, investment). After the Bourgeois Revolution in France there appeared such words as bureaucracy, revolution, regime, terrorism. World War I such neologisms as blackout, camouflage, air-raid appeared. After World War II such words as H-bomb, the UNO, cold war entered the language. the 70-s of the 20th century neologisms were connected with all spheres of life: computerization (multi-user, neurocomputer, liveware, telepost, telebanking, finger-print); exploration of space (space-bike, cargo-module, link-up); development of the arts (soft art, action painting, kinetic art; development of cinema, TV, video (inflight videosystem, satellite-delivered show, kidvid); theatrical art (theatre of absurd, son et lumiere, revolve); social development (the Lib movement, libbie). the 70s libbies declared that the English language discriminated women. As a result of it the names denoting occupations and containing the element man underwent some changes. The word cameraman was substituted by operator, fireman - fire-fighter, chairman - chairperson, policeman - police officer. Even in church the word mankind was substituted by people. At the same time the names of womens professions were changed: stewardess - flight attendant, nurse - male nurse, male secretary. He/she in written speech is used when both sexes are meant. S/he variant is less frequently used. the 80-s - 90-s of the 20th century neologisms were connected with lifestyles (belonger, ladies who lunch, theme pub); computerisation (laptop, to back up, to toggle); economics (sunrise industry, sunset industry, dawn raid); music (acid house, MTV, New Age music); mass media (video nasty, video piracy, tabloid television); art (crossfader, body-popping); medicine (to burn out, PWA, ME); education (baker day, City technology college; fashion (body conscious, leisure wear); cookery (jacket crisp, tapas). New words are everywhere., what kind of words can be defined as neologisms? Neologisms are words and expressions used for new concepts that appear in the course of the language development, new meanings of the already existing words and new names of old concepts. , the researchers have not been reached one general agreement on the question about neologism. Researchers with different knowledge backgrounds may define neologism in different ways.


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