urgency of a theme of research follows that translation of art texts is one of the most complicated problems of translation. Prominent feature of fiction is display in each case of an individual art manner of the writer. Thus the manner of the writer is caused by its outlook, influence of an aesthetics of an epoch and literary school, lexical and grammatical (in particular, syntactic) means of language and their parities with each other.style of the writer includes use of the certain speech styles of public language. Its unity gives in to a partition on elements already by way of the stylistic analysis (both the original, and translation in its parity with the original). The specific area within the limits of fiction is made with the poetry having the genres.of each of literary genres with characteristic for them speech styles is reflected in requirements to translation. The big role is played with conditions of speech style of that language on which translation is done. If while translating the structure of a phrase and a dictionary - material word meaning in dialogue of the novel or a drama too precisely corresponds to the original, very easily there is an impression of much more book painting of speech, than it actually takes place in the original.the given work we shall put some lexical questions of art translation, i.e. questions which arise only in relation to translation of fiction, and we shall show on their example language specificity of this kind of creative work.translating fiction there is a task to reproduce an individual originality of the original. This feature makes related, the literature art and political.of translations of fiction assumes the deep stylistic analysis of a material which would allow showing in what its individual originality consists.this analysis the originality of a manner of the author, shown in its product becomes clear that, is connected to specificity of the literature as arts.the literature as for art as which material language serves, directly close communication between an artistic image and a language category on the basis of which it is under construction is characteristic special, frequently. Searches in translation of direct figurative conformity to the original frequently are, are impracticable or result in formalistic decisions.purposes of course work to consider lexical problems of literary translation from English on the Russian language.of course work:
To analyses concept and essence of translation of fiction;
To consider features of translation from English on the Russian language using translational receptions.
lexical translation synonym literary
1. Concept and feature of literary translation
of literary translation
Problems of art translation are solved on the basis of transfer of the original as the whole on which background separate elements are reproduced in compliance with the role.of properties of the fiction, it from other products of a book word, its semantic capacity is distinguishing. It is shown in ability of the writer to tell more, than speaks direct sense of words in their set, in its skill to force to work both ideas, and feelings, and imagination of the reader. The semantic capacity of a literary work is shown or in forms of realistic typification, or in allegorical meaning, or in the general diversity of art speech.more characteristic feature of fiction is a strongly pronounced national painting of the maintenance and the form. It is important as well close communication between historical conditions and images of product reflecting it. On all these features, characteristic for fiction, also the individual manner of the writer comes to light.of a question on translation of fiction is defined by a variety of speech styles, plurality of the lexical and grammatical elements subject to transfer and demanding functional conformity in language of translation. There is also an acute problem of the language form, the language nature of an image and art - semantic function of language categories in studying art translation.of fiction are based on language categories, and communication between them is close and direct. It distinguishes fiction from the literature of the scientific, business documentation, the newspaper information where the language form serving for expression of concept, plays less active role or is neutral. In fiction the language form can enter extremely active interaction with the maintenance of an image or all system of images, causing character of their judgement.fiction the choice of the word being on the material sense a full synonym to corresponding word of modern national language and distinguished from last only by the lexical painting can play the big semantic and expressive role. It grows out accessories to the certain layer of dictionary structure (to number of archaisms, dialecticisms, loans). However in stylistic painting much is made very much - for example, author's irony, irony of the character in relation to itself or to other character, historical color, the instruction on local features in an image of a character, etc.of archaisms concerns to number of difficult problems and in general speaking another language (in relation to the text of the original) words by which in language of translation direct formal conformity with the same stylistic function or conformity can be not always found on the basis of other formal category.translational difficulty do not cause separate retorts meeting in some literary works on foreign (in relation to the original) language, the whole speaking another language offers, word-combinations or syntactic the detached words. They - just by virtue of their isolability - can be easily transferred in the text of translation without any changes and can be explained in the interlinear note. Complication can arise only while translating on that language from which the given words or phrases are taken.
Lexical aspects of literary translation
In the theory of translation the question on adequacy is developed rather deeply. Adequate it is possible to count translation in which the maintenance and expressive-stylistic features of the original is completely transferred. For preservation in translation of all features of the original it is necessary to take into account the distinctions existing between two languages.lexical conformity can be divided into two basic groups: equivalents and alternative conformity.are words which values always coincide in both languages, irrespective of a context. But with equivalent value it is not enough such words. Here concern: terms, own names and place names.other lexical conformity will be alternative, i.e. to one word of the English language there will correspond some values of Russian word, for example:
1) запас, общее количество товара на рынке;
) постановка, снабжение;
) (тех.) питание (током) и др.
In such cases a choice of value are defined by a context. The context can serve narrow - within the limits of a word-combination or the offer
S.T. - demand and supply
T.T. - спрос и предложение;
S.T. - direct supplies
T.T. - прямые поставки.
S.T. - The supply of raw materials is exhausted.
T.T. - Запасы сырья исчерпаны
The context happens wide when the word meaning can be understood, only having read the whole paragraph, page, or even clause or the book.in language there are no conformity; in such cases resort to loan of words with the help of a transliteration or a transcription, and also tracing (tracing is a translation of a word or a word-combination in parts):
S.T. - Авианосец
T.T. - aircraft carrier;
S.T. - Летающие тарелки
T.T. - flying saucers.
With the help of a tracing-paper realities and neologisms are transferred.it is impossible to transfer a word meaning to any of the above mentioned ways, resort to descriptive translation or give the note or a footnote., a combination
политика цен и доходов переводится как incomes policy.
In the English combination there is only a word
Incomes - доходы.
However, as the essence of this policy consists in approach to rights of workers, freezing of wages and a rise in prices, the word «цены» is included in Russian translation.translating also there are difficulties of the lexical and grammatical and grammatical order. For overcoming these difficulties it is necessary to use various translational receptions: rearrangements, replacements, additions, omissions.
1) Grammatical when parts of speech or sentence parts are replaced. Such replacements are caused by stylistic norms of Russian:
S.T. - экспорт Англии
T.T. - the British exports;
S.T. - это немедленно сказывается
T.T. - …this has an immediate impact…
Whereas in the English language as definition nouns are very widely used, such replacements while translating meet enough frequently:
S.T. - страховые сборы
T.T. - insurance charges;
S.T. - банковские сборы
T.T. - bank charges.
- Generalization, i.e. replacement of a foreign word with narrow value a word with wider value in Russian.
S.T. - Britain has various dealings with the rest of the world.
T.T. - У Англии имеются широкие экономические связи с остальными странами мира;
Concrete definition, i.e. replacement of the English word with very wide value Russian word with more concrete value. Thus each concrete value is defined by a context.
S.T. - The market is firm.
T.T. - На рынке установились прочные (стабильные) цены.
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