The Business Cycles as a Form of Economic Development

This cycle is believed to be accounted for by time lags in information movements affecting the decision making of commercial

The Business Cycles as a Form of Economic Development


Иностранные языки

Другие материалы по предмету

Иностранные языки

Сдать работу со 100% гаранией

Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine

National Technical University of Ukraine

“Kiev Polytechnic Institute”

Faculty of Management and Marketing










Report on Macroeconomics

«The Business Cycles as a Form of Economic Development»



Written by

The student of UZ-92

Osipov Dmitry

Checked by

Ereshko Yu. A.









busines economic cycle


Definition of Cyclicity

Stages of the Business Cycles





Causes of Economic Cycles

Types and Continuity of the Business Cycles

Short Cycles

Middle Term Cycles

Long Cycles (The Kondratiev wave)

Stabilizing policy of the State

The Great Depression

The List of Used Literature



The modern society strives to continuously improve the level of life and living conditions, which can only provide sustainable economic growth. However, long-term economic growth is not even, but is constantly being interrupted by periods of the economic instability. The ups and downs along the level of output, following one another, are commonly called the business or economic cycles.

We can meet cycles, including economic ones, almost everywhere. Our life, the career develops cyclically - we always feel expansions, recessions. The topic is relevant because we all have to understand that once we hit the pick, its going to be followed by the recession.


Definition of Cyclicity


The economy has the ability to develop cyclically: it has its own crises, recoveries, "booms". People always strive to reach the peak, the "boom" of their welfare; the government - to the peak of economic development of the state. But the economy cant stay at the peak of its development forever, its always followed by the recession, crisis. Under these two words we all understand something bad, something we want quickly to get rid of. Crises have a negative impact on almost everything, so we try to avoid it. But even in the developed countries like USA, UK, France, Germany and other countries of Western Europe we dont see the successful experience of avoiding them.

Scientists have not determined the exact causes of the cycles for several centuries. Currently, there are only theories of economic cycles. The other economists agree with them or offer brand new ideas on the problem .However, this question remains open to this day.

Economic cycle (or the business cycle) is the periodic but irregular up-and-down movements in economic activity, measured by fluctuations in real GDP and other macroeconomic variables.

The main characteristics of business cycles:

  1. Self renewal;
  2. Continuity;
  3. Wave-looking dynamics of macroeconomics factors.

The economic cycles depend on output. The output is expressed by the quantity of commodities and services, produced by the economy of the exact country.


Stages of the Business Cycles


The full business cycles have four stages its gone through. They are: recession, through, recovery and peak (or “boom”).




At the moment of recession there is a decline in economic growth, and then, as a rule, direct reduction in output. These phenomena are associated with the overproduction of goods. At this time, the amount of unsold goods dramatically increases. We can see massive bankruptcy (ruin), industrial and commercial enterprises which can not sell goods that are accumulated. Because of the suspension of production, the unemployment is rapidly growing, wages are declining. The stock market is crushed, we observe falling stock prices. All entrepreneurs are in dire need of money to pay debts quickly formed and therefore the norm of banks-sky percentage will increase significantly.

Here are the longest recessions of the last century:

1929-33: 43 months

1910-12: 24 months

1913-14: 23 months

1920-21: 18 months

1973-75: 16 months

1980-81: 16 months

As we can see the longest recession happened during the Great Depression (1929-33). It lasted 43 months.



Following the recession here comes another phase trough (depression). The declining of production suspends and the prices are getting lower. Stocks of goods are gradually decreasing. Because of the small demand, mass of free capital increases, the bank interest rate reduces to a minimum level. Industry and employment, having got to the lowest level, slowly and gradually begin to grow.

During the depression the supply of goods stops to dominate on demand, thats why an economic equilibrium appears between them. At the same time conditions to end the crisis are being naturally created.

Speaking of through, lets get back to the Great Depression. For instance, stock prices fell from $89 to 15$ billion. An unemployment rate was 25%. 100 000 failed.




The stage of recovery is the most pleasant phase of any cycle.

The economic conditions which we have described in depression phase do not remain as such for ever. After sometime revival or recovery sets in under the influence of a variety of factors. The revival phase develops when the accumulated stock of commodities with the businessmen are exhausted. The cost under the impact prolonged depression begins to fall. The price which have reached its lowest level stop falling further.

There is then complete harmony between costs and price relationship. When profits begin to reappear, the businessmen are induced to invest their hoarded money in some enterprise. In order to steal a march over other industrialists, they start repairs, renewal and replacements of their capital equipments and stocks. The capital goods industries resume activities. There is gradual reemployment of labor.

The money incomes begin to increase and the effective demand is revived. The government also tries to break the spell of depression by starting construction or expanding some public works with a view to give more employment. The commercial banks which have accumulated large reserve offer credit on favorable terms. The marginal efficiency of capital begins to rise and investment opportunitiesbrighten up. The consumers start buying commodities to avoid the rise. Due to increase in demand for commodities, investment in various industries is stimulated and thus the revival takes place.

In the Great Depression recovery real GDP raised from $580 billion to $1300 billion.




Recovery ends with a "boom" or peak of cycle when the economy is operating at maximum capacity, there is full employment, investment and spending of customers are very high, we observe an expansion of production, wages and profits are rising. Now because of many customers who are willing to buy a lot of commodities, prices trend to rise. Entrepreneurs feel limitation of recourses and an output level stops going up. Then the economy is "overheated", and it sinks into a new crisis.

The cycle is completed. And here comes a new one.

Of course, the way how business cycles go depends on each situation of different countries. In some of them recessions take no more then a year, but others stay in that phase for 5-10 years. It also depends on what caused the recession.


Causes of the Business Cycles


A lot of economists have conducted researches on what causes the business cycles to take place. Even though we dont have an actual answer to that question. There are about 200 concepts that will describe economic crisis and their cyclicity. All of those concepts are divided into two groups.

At first, the nature of economic cycles is explained by the factors not having anything in common with economic system. They are: political events, psychological problems, solar activity cycles, wars, revolutions, the powerful breakthroughs in techniques and technology.

In particular. One Englishman explains it through the solar activity. An American, G. Moor, was talking about Venus motion rythm.

Secondly, the cycle is considered as an internal phenomenon, dealing with economics. Internal factors can cause a recession, and the rise in economic activity through certain periods of time. One of the crucial factors is the cyclicity of basic capital. In particular, the beginning of economic boom, accompanied by a sharp increase in demand for machinery and equipment, apparently suggesting that it repeated over a period of time when this technique is physically and mentally worn out.

So, generally there are two types of causes. They are internal and external cause.

Internal causes:

  1. political and other events;
  2. new land discoveries;
  3. climate conditions;

External causes:

  1. unstable consumer spending;
  2. unstable investment rate;
  3. recourses price changes.


Types and Continuity of the Business Cycles


Short business cycle(Kitchin cycle )

This cycle is believed to be accounted for by time lags in information movements affecting the decision making of commercial firms. Firms react to the improve

Похожие работы

1 2 >