1.What democracy is, main definitions
2.The history of democracy
3.The main principles of democracy
.The advantages and disadvantages of democracy
Conclusionlist of the used literature
of government - the members of a social organization who are in power. The problem that "what is the best form of government?" was not only the problem in the past but it is still a problem even at the end of the 20th century. The question again remains that "what is the best form of government?" The government should be based on the three creative principles of absolute justice, kindness and kinship. The law of nature is governing the whole universe according to these three creative principles.government should based on absolute justice, kindness and kinship. Without these creative principles, no government will serve the purpose and it will cause eventually trouble to the people. There should be justice in forming government, electing candidates, and making policies. These principles keep the government in moderate position. Having these principles, neither there will be extreme liberty, as we know that extreme liberty causes social and moral disorders. Nor these principles allow for extreme control of government that causes disastrous problem.principles keep society, government, and economic and other pursuit of happiness in proportion. With kindness, we have an opportunity in the world that is based on the theory of "Social Darwinism." With absolute justice, everyone can have his/her share accordingly. These principles were not introduced in the system of Locke, Hobbes or Rousseau. In order to have a best form of government these principles are essential and are based on the natural law.
It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried. - told Winston Churchill.
1.WHAT DEMOCRACY IS, MAIN DEFINITIONS
a democracy, the government is elected by the people. Everyone who is eligible to vote - which is a majority of the population - has a chance to have their say over who runs the country.
I think of democracy as a system of government with four key elements:
.A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections.
. The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life.
. Protection of the human rights of all citizens.
. A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.is a means for the people to choose their leaders and to hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their conduct in office.people decide who will represent them in parliament, and who will head the government at the national and local levels. They do so by choosing between competing parties in regular, free and fair elections. Government is based on the consent of the governed. In a democracy, the people are sovereign-they are the highest form of political authority. Power flows from the people to the leaders of government, who hold power only temporarily.guard against all-powerful central governments and decentralize government to regional and local levels, understanding that local government must be as accessible and responsive to the people as possible.basic sense of democracy as a form of governance rests on its etymology as rule by the entire people rather than, as Shapiro puts it, by any "aristocrat, monarch, philosopher, bureaucrat, expert, or religious leader." Beyond that, actual definitions of democracy come in all shapes and sizes.example,
·Democracy is "the substitution of election by the incompetent many for appointment by the corrupt few." (G.B. Shaw).
·Democracy is "government by the people; that form of government in which the sovereign power resides in the people as a whole, and is exercised either directly by them or by officers elected by them." (Oxford English Dictionary, 1933).
"Democracy provides opportunities for
) effective participation,
)equality in voting,
)gaining enlightened understanding,
)exercising final control over the agenda, and
5)inclusion of adults." The political institutions that are necessary to pursue these goals are "
1) elected officials,
) free, fair and frequent elections,
) freedom of expression,
) alternative sources of information,
) associational autonomy, and 6) inclusive citizenship." (Dahl)
·"In a democracy important public decisions on questions of law and policy depend, directly or indirectly, upon public opinion formally expressed by citizens of the community, the vast bulk of whom have equal political rights." (Weale).is "a state where political decisions are taken by and with the consent, or the active participation even, of the majority of the People. Liberalism, though recognizing that in the last resort the legal majority must prevail, tries to protect the minorities as it does the civil rights of the individual, and by much the same methods. Liberal democracy is qualified democracy. The ultimate right of the majority to have its way is conceded, but that way is made as rough as possible." (Finer 1997).emphasizes one or more things thought to be true about democracy.
2.THE HISTORY OF DEMOCRACY
is often very difficult to find basic information about the history of democracy. Debates about the nature of democracy will never end, but there is no reason to throw up our hands. Indeed, systematic comparisons between different political systems and societies are necessary if we are to understand and create democracies.
The word "democracy," as well as the concept it represents, can be traced back to the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The beginnings of democracy can be credited to the Greeks of the sixth century BC. The word comes from two Greek words: demos, meaning "the people," and kratein, meaning "to rule." These two words are joined together to form democracy, literally meaning "rule by the people" (Pious).Greek system of government was perhaps closer to a true democracy or rule by the people than any other in history. The Greeks viewed dictatorship as the worst possible form of government, so their government evolved as the exact opposite. Their civilization was broken down into small city-states (never more than 10,000 citizens), and all the men voted on all issues of government. There were no representatives in the Greek system of government. Instead, they ruled themselves directly; each man was a life long member of the decision making body. This was almost a total democracy except for the fact that women and slaves (over 50% of the population) were not considered citizens and were not allowed to vote. Despite this, no other civilization has come as close to democracy as its creators, the Greeks, and many later civilizations have incorporated this Greek idea as part of the foundation for their government.
For most of world history, most people have got along without democracy. Most governments of historical nations have been monarchies of one kind or another. Of the republics before modern times (Ancient Greece <http://www.timemaps.com/history/ancient-greece-500bc> and Rome <http://www.timemaps.com/history/ancient-rome-200bc>, Ancient India, Medieval Italy), only a small handful have been true democracies - notably that infamous political experiment, Athens., I suppose, for most people, for most of history, democracy has not even been a distant dream, so fighting for it wasn't even a possibility. Perhaps it is a truth that when democracy is a reality in one part of the world, then all the peoples of the world want it.I wonder whether in fact the peoples of he Middle East really are fighting for democracy as such. What I think may be happening is that they are fighting against their governments' corruption, intimidation and so on.most of history, government has had very little impact on the lives of most people. Even in monarchies, throughout history villages have tended to run their own affairs, with the agents of the central government seen as a distant (and not very friendly) presence. The most centrally organized society of pre-modern times has been imperial China - but even here, there was only one magistrate to tens of thousands of ordinary people. What modern technology has done is to enable governments to be come much more involved in people's lives, to make a much greater impact. And people don't like it - especially when those government agents are arrogant and bullying.governments have taken a huge amount of power away from their people. Even in a society like Britain, townsmen and villagers in feudal and early modern times essentially governed themselves through their parish and town councils. During the nineteenth and twentieth century, however, the state expanded into every corner of people's lives - just as it has in every other advanced nation. In fact, just as it MUST in every advanced nation (a topic for another blog).in fact, without open democratic systems, governments WILL, despite the best intentions of this in high places, become corrupt and bullying. And in the modern world, where government officials have a so much greater impact on the lives of the people than in previous times, resentment will grow. Hatred will come. It may well be that, in modern times, authoritarian regimes really are all doomed.
democracy government history principle
3. THE MAIN PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY
democracy is to work, citizens must not only particip