The basic methods of psychological research

organization of the natural experiment also may use technical means (but if the examinee does not know about it). For

The basic methods of psychological research


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ethods of survey are divided into: · Optic survey - interviews; · Part survey - questionnaires. These methods are used after the formation of hypotheses and a plan of study. Interviews are used, usually after questioning, and they both used after the experiment. Interview in psychology is the way to a social and psychological information through verbal questioning. In the history of the interview as a psychological method can distinguish three main stages of development: 1) first interview was used in psychotherapy and psycho, in turn, this contributed to the emergence of psychological consultation; 2) the use of interviews in sociological and social-psychological research, where he first emerged on the validity of methods of organizing and conducting interviews and accuracy of the information obtained; 3) the current stage of psychological research is characterized by the coordination of practical, theoretical and methodological problems of the interview in order to use it as a special method of obtaining information through verbal communication. Types of interviews: 1. Free - no regulated subject and form of conversation, not standardized. Provides pre-formulation, which can be changed in the survey. The researcher can follow the general plan of the interview, it may hold in a free form. Advantage - provides a more natural response, deeper understanding of the phenomenon. Disadvantage - the difficulty of quantitative information processing 2. Standardized - in form it is close to a questionnaire with closed questions. Characterized by well thought-through questions that are put to all respondents in the same wording and order. Questions and their order can not be changed. Advantage - easy to compare results and quantifiable treatment. Disadvantage - the lack of flexibility in setting questions. 3. Napivstandartyzovane - compensating for the shortcomings of both types of interviews to include mandatory questions and variables. Required are all respondents and variables - depending on the depth of their answers. However, the boundaries between these types of interviews are mobile and depend on the complexity of the problem, objectives and the research phase. The degree of freedom is due to interview the participants list and the form of questions, the notional level of information received - richness and complexity of responses. During the conversation may obtain different situations on the position of the interviewer: a) the respondent knows why he acted or should act, and not otherwise; b) the respondent is not enough information about the reasons of their own actions; c) the interviewer aims to get symptomatic information although the respondent did not evaluate it as such. Or that the situation involves the use of different methods of interviewing. In the first case is sufficient to use an orderly, well-directed series of questions. In two other situations require methods that involve the cooperation of the respondent in the process of finding relevant information. Examples of such methods is the clinical interview and diagnostic interviews. Diagnostic interviews - a method of obtaining information about individual properties used in the early stages of psychotherapy. This method serves as a special means of establishing close personal contact with the interlocutor. In many situations, clinical work, he is an important way to penetrate the patient's inner world and understanding of its difficulties. There are: 1) controlled - from fully programmed (by type of questionnaire - unchanging and unchangeable strategy tactics) to completely free (constant strategy and tactics is free); 2) uncontrolled, "confessional" where the initiative belongs to the patient. In clinical practice, fully standardized diagnostic interview is used very rarely. Clinical interviews - a method of therapeutic conversations in the case of psychological help. In psychiatry, psychoanalysis and medical psychology, this method is used to help the patient understand its internal difficulties, conflicts, hidden motives. The clinical interview is the most free form of conversation, in conversations of this type of psychologist is interested not only direct patient response content (facts, opinions, feelings, verbal number - Dictionary, association of ideas, etc.), but his behavior (tone, gestures, movements etc...) An important prerequisite for successful implementation of the method is to establish positive personal relationships between members of the conversation, which requires the psychologist to be patient, resourceful, to adapt to the interests of the patient. In some cases, the method may have a direct effect of psychotherapy, with the patient not only understands the reasons for their difficulties, but also identifies ways to overcome them. The overall strategy and progress of the method are based on preliminary data and so the diagnosis.- a method of psychosocial research by using structural and organized questions, each of which is associated with the purposes and objectives of research - questionnaires. Depending on the nature of the necessary information and ways to obtain various types of questionnaire: - Solid (covered by large groups of people); - Sample (covered by a specific group of participants); - Oral (by type of interview); - Writing (work with blank questionnaires); - Individual and group; - Full-time (by direct interaction); - Correspondence (mail, telephone, media, etc.). The process of drawing up the questionnaire - the translation of basic hypotheses persuasion questions. This procedure requires knowledge of types of questions, ability to formulate them in sequence.of questions: 1. Those who find the facts. Put the end of the questionnaire; 2. Those facts show that the behavior, acts of the respondent; 3. Those who find the attitude of the respondent to objects, objects, and its possible actions and their causes. In a separate group of distinguished projective questions when respondent offered a set of situations that can happen with him. Interrogator calls his behavior. These questions are intended to penetrate into the motivation of the respondent to reveal his intentions, thoughts. Questions may be: · Open - the nature, shape, type of advance is not provided; · Closed - with options of possible answers. Chosen only one; · Semiclosed - chosen one or more answers, the respondents should express their opinion. The structure of the questionnaire: 1. Introduction - appeal to the respondent, which indicates who conducted the survey and how the results will be used. Emphasizing the importance of the answers, guaranteed anonymity, specified rules. 2. The main part - Issues relating to research. First are those that are interested in questioning; then - the most complex, designed to clarify thoughts, estimates at the end - the most personal, test questions (specification information). 3. The demographic part - questions about the objective status of individuals (sex, age, education, etc.). Principles of Form: - Fixing of the most significant questions; - The wording of questions should be clear to all respondents according to their level of knowledge; - Questions should be formulated so that they could answer in principle; - Should facilitate complete information; - Should cause a positive reaction, a desire to answer. Application should provide such a response that is true and on surveys and problems, which is the subject of study. Questionnaire is based on theoretical ideas about the nature of the subject of study, according to this grading scale chosen, the types of questions to determine the number and order of questions that are treated. Also in a case study selected the most adequate procedure of questioning with regard to all the circumstances of the situation of cognitive act. Each separate type of survey provides a research situation, and the structure of the questionnaire, including the consistency and richness of emotional issues, means of processing and analyzing data. Conversation - the method of establishing mental features in the process of direct communication. Helps identify the particular character, motives, attitudes. Widely used in various fields of psychology: social, medical, pediatric, and others. In some cases, the conversation is the main means of obtaining factual information is also used as input in guinea situation of psychological experimentation: of clear instructions to communicate freely in the psychotherapy situation.of the conversation:

. Opening the discussion, you must select the topic that is pleasant and fun for the respondent. This helps to create mutual understanding;

. What is important is the timing and venue;

. Questions biographical nature are not put at the beginning of the conversation because they tire;

. Language researcher and content of his questions should be accessible and understandable;

. Conversation should be compiled taking into account age and individual characteristics of the respondent;

. If necessary clarification should not be prompt and ask suggestive questions;

. Questions should be formulated in a neutral manner;

. The researcher must be attentive and flexible, prefer indirect questions;

. Better to ask a few brief questions than one major;

. Questions are deployed to provide answers;

. It is impossible to establish contact, switch to slang patient;

. The most important questions are repeated but in another form.the conversation, the researcher receives no objective facts, and thoughts of a man who tries to meet expectations. Diagnostic methods - tests Diagnosis - one of the important problems of the use of psychological knowledge in various fields to study the man best use of its capabilities. Psychodiagnostic methods are used almost everywhere. Without them it is impossible to monitor the effect rozvyvayuchym training, receiv

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