Methods of research
of research - these are techniques and methods by which researchers obtain reliable information used for further construction of scientific theories and develop practical recommendations. Through the use of methods of natural and physical sciences, psychology, since the second half of last century, evolved into an independent science and has been actively developed. Until then, psychological knowledge obtained mainly through introspection (introspection), speculative considerations, monitoring the behavior of others. However, the subjectivity of these methods, their lack of reliability and complexity are the reason that psychology has long been filosofstvuyuchoyu, neeksperymentalnoyu science, able to assume, but do not prove cause-effect relationships that exist between the mental and other phenomena. However, due to over-expressed theorizing she was actually divorced from practice. The intention to make psychology more or less accurate, practically useful science that not only describes but also explains the phenomenon was associated with the introduction of laboratory experiment and measurement. Since the late 80 pp. XIX century. in psychology were established and the application of special technical devices and machines for laboratory experimental research. A pioneer in this was the scientist W. Wundt, who organized the work in Leipzig the first psychological laboratory. Technical devices allow the researcher to conduct controlled and controlled scientific experiment. At the mathematization and technicalization research in psychology and has not lost its importance traditional methods of collecting scientific information, including such as observation, introspection and questioning. However, these observations and, especially, introspection, almost always need to check the accuracy and reliability. Where possible, these data should be controlled by other, more objective methods, including mathematical calculations.
experiment psychology method
Observations - the most common method in the sciences and one of the two main methods in psychology. It is the oldest method of knowledge of the psyche, which is used not only in science but also in life. This method is studied mental activity of children and adults, which is manifested in the movements and actions, utterances and actions of others. The method - direct, systematic and sustained perception. Of course, directly observe the psyche can not. Only in the activities, actions and deeds in the broad sense (and when to abstain from certain actions in terms of psychology is regarded as a specific act, a kind act) expressed personality of man, his psyche. The method involves monitoring the knowledge of individual features of the human psyche by studying its behavior. In other words, the objective, externally marked parameters (action, actions, speech, appearance), psychologist concludes individual characteristics of flow of mental processes (perception, memory, thinking, imagination), the mental state of man, the features of its personality, temperament, character. The peculiarity of the method of observation is that the study of the external manifestations of the human psyche is in the natural living conditions. Psychological monitoring should be targeted: the observer must visualize and understand what he was going to watch and why, otherwise the observation is converted into random fixation, secondary facts. It follows that psychological observation necessarily conducted under a special plan, scheme or program that provides the observer is studying the issues and facts, which he pre-allocated. Without a plan or program lost baseline observation, causing you to lose the most important and significant in mental activity. Monitoring should be conducted systematically, because psychological observation, usually requires more or less long time. The longer the observation, the more facts can gain observer, the easier it will separate the typical accidental, the deeper and more reliable will be its conclusions. Continuous monitoring is used, for example, when studying the age characteristics of children, in particular features of their speech and thinking, emotional expressions, interests, character traits and abilities. The results of this long observation recorded in his diary, which analyzes the mental development of children (often several years) or execute in the form of psychological characteristics. Types of observations:
. Direct - the researcher observes phenomena and processes under normal conditions. a) researcher - participant - for example, conducts a lesson with educational work, b) the researcher - a witness - not included in the activities c) the researcher - the organizer, observer - indirect observation;
. Open - held among the population to be studied;
. Pho - performed by cameras;
. Continuous - made from beginning to end;
. Discrete - carried out intermittently.20 years of the twentieth century was the dominant method of observation. But over time he began to refuse because people are always trying to prove themselves on better side. The downside of this method lies in its empirical. You can trace only the external manifestations of conduct and progress of ideas, inspiration remain closed from the observer. Observers should always be checked by other methods. Method of observation: · Outcomes - defining goals and objectives · Drawing up the plan, timing, object and subject, · Establish a program of observation: - Questions to find out - Technique of fixation events (entries in his diary, on tape). Requirements of observation:
. Commitment - there are concrete manifestations of personality in various activities;
. Independence - Observation - independent tasks, rather than accompanying activities;
. Naturalness - carried out under normal conditions, without the intervention of the researcher;
. Objectivity - fixing the real facts
. Fixation is carried out during the observation, not after it.
The experiment relates to empirical research methods. There is a comprehensive method of study and involves the use of a number of other methods. This method of gathering evidence in a specially designed environment. By creating conditions, the researcher must know the factors that acted during those events that have been studied. He has the opportunity to observe how certain conditions affect the course of events. This is achieved by changing one condition for invariance of the other. The experiment is the source of the scientific facts. Features: § Identification of the facts; § Checking the reliability of results; § Test the hypothesis. Types of experiment: · Laboratory (primary); · Natural. Laboratory The first psychological laboratory was opened in 1886 in Leybtsyzkomu University, W. Wundt.experiments used to study the individual states. Stimulating material may be rows of numbers, words, images. His conduct in a specially organized and somewhat artificial conditions, it requires special equipment and sometimes the use of technical devices. Often, though not always, it is performed in specially equipped for this purpose rooms (laboratories) using sophisticated equipment. Laboratory experiments allow for recording devices accurately measure the time course of mental processes, such as rate of human reactions, the rate of development of the education and labor skills. It is used in cases where necessary to obtain accurate and reliable flow rates of mental phenomena in strictly defined circumstances. An example can serve as a laboratory experiment studying the process of identification with a special setting that allows the screen (like television) gradually produce a different number of experimental visual information (from the smallest item of information to display in all its details) to determine where stage one recognizes the subject depicted. Laboratory experiments promotes a deep and comprehensive study of mental activity of people. The success of modern scientific psychology would have been impossible without the use of this method.:
. Minimizing the random factors influencing the result;
. Net branch of experimental factors;
. Ability to control all factors in the experimental situation;
. Possibility of directional control persons participating in the experiment;
. Gives you the ability to penetrate deeply into the nature of the relationship between phenomena. Disadvantages:
. The significance of setting the experimenter to study; 2. Under real conditions, subjects behave differently; 3. The presence of the experimenter, focus on his authority affects the objectivity of the study of behavior; 4. We study the existing business. Unable to explore the process of its formation. Disadvantages of laboratory experiment is largely eliminated in the organization of natural experiment. There remains the natural conditions of observation and accuracy of the experiment is introduced. The natural experiment is constructed so that experimental unaware that they are psychological research - it provides a natural behavior.
organization of the natural experiment
organization of the natural experiment also may use technical means (but if the examinee does not know about it). For the correct and successful natural experiment to observe all those requirements, which are submitted to the laboratory experiment. According to the research goals experimenter selects the following conditions which provide the most vivid manifestation of certain sides of mental activity. Methods of survey interview, questionnaire, interview Very often there is a need for data that can not be obtained by observation and experiment. These data provide methods of questioning. M