Teaching English speaking at the beginning stage
Every year in many parts of the world a considerable number of persons find themselves called upon to teach English to those whose mother tongue is not English. Their pupils may be children or adults; and range from those who already have some knowledge of English either in its spoken or written form to those who know not a single word of the language.mother tongue of those who are about to engage in such teaching is usually English, but to some of them English is a foreign language in which they may or may not be proficient. But in either case they find themselves taking on a job which is unfamiliar to them. They have rarely been specially trained to teach English as a living language and as a means of immediate communication.their pupils already have some knowledge of English, the teacher more often than not has recourse to a reading book, and causes his pupils to read - with or without the process of translation. Or, if a command of the spoken language is the objective, they content themselves with carrying on «conversation» with their pupils. In the latter case such teachers find themselves at a loss. The various techniques of teaching through conversation are usually unknown to them and, like the veterans who came into this field before them, they pick up the devices of oral teaching by dint of the process of trial and error.researching work is written to show that there are a lot of different ways of teaching speaking to children and adults on the beginning stage. There are The Oral Direct Method, Communicative Approach, Penny Urs Methods, Topic Approach and others.we consider our task to show how these methods work, so there are examples, which are in the practical part of the work.work consists of different tips, which can help teachers to work with children and adults. Psychological peculiarities of children and adults are describing in this work.
The object of the work is teaching English speaking.
The subject of the work is researching the theme at the beginning stage.
The purpose of the researching is to study different methods of teaching English speaking at the beginning stage.
The tasks are:
-to study what is the speaking itself;
-to study psychological peculiarities of children and adults;
-to examine different techniques of teaching speaking;
-to reveal how to deal with mistakes in oral speech.
It is a well-known fact that when two persons, ignorant of each other's language, find themselves in daily contact, with the necessity of communication by speech, either will soon become able to use the language of the other with sufficient proficiency for the purpose in view. We consider that the theme of the project is the one of the main themes of teaching English speaking because it is very important to teach oral English at the very beginning of the lessons to continue studying without difficult problems.
1.1What should a teacher know about children
1.1.1Principles of learning and language learning
1.The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget(13) and his colleagues have demonstrated that children in primary or elementary school are usually in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development. This means that they learn through hands-on experiences and through manipulation of objects in the environment. Children in primary or elementary-school settings generally learn by doing. If this principle were extended to the English teaching setting, it would mean that children in language classes need to be active than passive; they need to be engaged in activities of which language is a part; they need to be working on meaningful tasks and use language o accomplish those tasks. So when the teacher wants to teach children how to speak he should not only show them how to do it but give them tasks and practical exercises.
2.This principle, which comes from the work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (15), suggests that children need not only hands-on or direct experiences, but also experiences where they are interacting with and learning from others, both adults and other children. In terms of language classes, an implication would be that children need to use the new language with each other and with the teacher. Another implication would be that the teacher, as the one who knows more English that the children, needs to interact with the children in English, using the language that is related directly to activities in which children are engaged. So when teacher wants his children to speak he should use not only method of asking questions, but such methods of group work or work in pairs to teach them how to speak to each other in informal situations.
.Language acquisition occurs through learners figuring out how the language works, through learners making and testing out hypotheses about the language. Language acquisition involves the cognitive work of creative construction of the rules of the language (7). So teacher should not be afraid of childrens mistakes, when they speak and experiment with the new language, it is a natural and inevitable part of language learning.
.Language acquisition occurs through social interaction, through having to use the language with others in authentic communication settings. Language develops as speakers try out the language they are figuring out in situations with others, and as others respond to their efforts. Interlocutors work together both to be understood and to understand each other. So one of the methods of teaching speaking is to give children tasks to speak to each other more then to speak to teacher.principles suggest a communicative approach to language teaching, which focuses on involving pairs and small groups of learners in authentic communicative situations and in problem-solving and information-gap activities. They suggest an approach in which the teacher uses English both to introduce and oversee the activities and to talk with children as they work together. So these principles help teacher, who wants his children to speak English, to be focused on the communicative approach in teaching. (1)
Pic. 1. Principles of learning and language learning
1.1.2How a teacher can develop the Communicative Competence
Primary class teachers are only too aware of their responsibility in this area of foreign language acquisition and are anxious at all times that their pronunciation, intonation and rhythm are accurate, if only to ensure that the results of their teaching programs are validated and approved of by their secondary modern language specialist colleagues. Speaking is demanding of teacher and pupil alike. For the child it means discriminating between different speech sounds and being able to produce them correctly, building up new pronunciation habits and overcoming the bias of the first language, feeling the different stress patterns in the new language, having the confidence to hear themselves express their personality in a «foreign» medium, being content to inhabit a new persona. In their own language they can express emotions, communicate intentions and reactions, explore the language and have fun with it. If teachers succeed in creating the right ethos and atmosphere, this is what the child will reasonably expect to be able to do in the foreign language as well. However, these expectations can be fulfilled (or thwarted) by the teacher. Constancy of practice, a non-judge mental response to «errors», and an acceptance of the child's use of the mother tongue will contribute to a more creative, less circumscribed use of the foreign language.the foreign language, as in the mother tongue, the child will speak spontaneously only when they perceive the need, what Margaret Donaldson calls the «intention to-say-so-and-so». Teachers can teach formulaic expressions and these will make up a substantial portion of the child's repertoire contributing to their growing sense of achievement. Indeed, their skilful use seems to contribute greatly to communicative success. After all, nothing succeeds like success! These are the child's «data» which they use to analyze how language works. But how can we help the child go beyond these formulaic, short utterances? How can we scaffold the child's attempts to communicate verbally in the foreign language?
Implications for the teacher
Paradoxically children often assume that there is something unique, other, unconnected to anything else, about learning a foreign language. Teachers remind them of the basic and essential functions of language and that not all communication need be verbal. Non-verbal cues include:
reaction to other's speech.sensitive teacher will alert the children to a common feature in speech: we identify a setting, we pause, and then we focus. The need to communicate is occasioned by children's excitement, by their determination to transmit a piece of information to someone for whom they feel affection. The major problem confronting teachers is that of identifying «needful» situations for their pupils.is a natural tension, of course, between the authentic one-word answer in response to questions such as what's your name? How are you? Do you like…? And the fuller utterances which teachers might wish to encourage. B