The given annual project is dedicated to the linguistic problem - The Subject: Ways of Expressing It in the Sentence.
The main goal of the work is to identify the main features of the subject in the sentence, basing on the theoretical and scientific works of Russian, English, American, Moldovan and Romanian authors, and examine the subject and its features in the works of American and English fiction.
The objectives of the thesis, in their turn, represent ascending steps to the main goal of the project:
.to define the notion of the subject;
. to present the classification of the subject according to the theoretical sources of the examined works of the linguists.
.to present the ways the subject is expressed in the sentence.
. to identify the subject features and the ways it is expressed in the works of the investigated American and English fiction.
. to compare the means the subject is expressed in fiction in the works of such writers as: The Book of Grotesque by Sherwood Anderson, The Magic Barrel by Bernard Malamud, The Last Leaf, The Gift of the Magi by O. Henry, The Man with the Scar, The Door of Opportunity, A Friend in Need by W.S. Maugham.
Actuality of the work maintains the basic functions of the subject in the sentence as one of the main constituents and its continual study due to this fact. That is a linguistic phenomenon having been introduced into education on different educative levels starting from the simplest definitions in primary school and reaching gradually deep theoretical interpretations of the subject in the institutions of higher education.annual project is based mainly on the scientific sources of English and Russian linguists, such as:, S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, J. Svartvik, Richard Gardiner, Timothy Cobb, Geoffrey Leech, as for the Russian grammarians: V. L. Kaushanskaya, I. P. Krylova, M. A. Ganshina, N.M. Vasilevskaya, Б. А. Ильин., the works of the Romanian scholars - Andrey Bahtaş and Leon Levitchi, and others.
Thus, Chapter One of the present project embodies three points:
.The definitions of the subject;
.Classification of the subject (from structural and functional points of view);
.Ways of expressing the subject;English grammar the subject (along with the predicate) is researched by a number of linguists and philologists. It is defined in different interpretations, but still the entire variants base on one common backbone of the notion:subject (abbreviated sub. or su.) is one of the two main constituents of a clause or a simple sentence, according to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle. It is the main part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent.subject is sometimes said to be the relatively familiar element, to which the predicate is added as something new, The utterer throws into his subject all that he knows the receiver is already willing to grant him, and to this he adds in the predicate what constitutes the new information to be conveyed by the sentence… [4, 154], the following features of the subject are maintained in most definitions of the studied linguists:) the subject is normally a noun or a clause with nominal function;) the subject occurs before the verb phrase in declarative clauses, and immediately after the operator in questions;) the subject has number and person concord, where applicable, with the verb phrase.classifications of the subject are presented according to the role and structure of the subject in the sentence.of expressing the subject vary in conformity with the parts of speech and constructions it is presented by.Two is the practical part of the given work on the basis of the studied fiction, such as:
. American fiction: The Book of Grotesque by Sherwood Anderson, The Magic Barrel by Bernard Malamud;
The Gift of the Magi, The Last Leaf by O. Henry;
. English fiction: The Man with the Scar, The Door of Opportunity, A Friend in Need by W.S. Maugham.practical part is aimed at investigation of the subject features in the works of American and English fiction and fulfillment of the comparative analysis in the given works of two different cultures - American and English.results of the executed practical work demonstrating common and contrasting ways of expressing the subject in British and American fiction are evidenced in conclusion of the project.
1.Chapter One. The Subject: Ways of Expressing It in the Sentence
.1 Definitions of the Subject
The notion of the Subject in the grammatical theory of the English language can be presented very briefly and clearly: it is the main part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent. [8, 67]reason for calling the subject and the predicate the main parts of the sentence and distinguishing them from all the other parts which are treated as secondary, is roughly this. The subject and the predicate between them constitute the backbone of the sentence: without them the sentence would not exist at all, whereas all the other parts may or may not be there, and if they are there, they serve to define or modify either the subject, or the predicate, or each other. [10, 205]linguistic experiment to prove the correctness of this view would be to take a sentence containing the subject, a predicate, and a number of secondary parts, and to show that any of the secondary parts might be removed without the sentence being destroyed, whereas if either the subject or the predicate were removed there would be no sentence left: its backbone would be broken. This experiment would probably succeed and prove the point in a vast majority of cases.question now arises: what criteria do we practically apply when we say that a word (or, sometimes, a phrase) is the subject of a sentence? [10, 206]grammatical phenomenon of the subject in English has been examined by a number of linguists, philologists and grammatical experts both of English and foreign origin in different epochs. This notion is defined in various interpretations; still the common backbone is identified in all of them. Lets retrace this common thread, kept in all the definitions of the subject.Greenbaum in The Oxford English Grammar notes that the subject of a sentence is the constituent that normally comes before the verb in a declarative sentence and changes position with the operator in an interrogative sentence. It is applicable, the verb agrees in number and person with the subject (I am ready): the subject I is first person singular and so is am [2,305]Roberts in Understanding Grammar presents the subject as the element stressed or the new element added to the discourse end in complexities that are interesting philosophically but useless grammatically. The beginners device to find the subject is first to find the verb and then ask who? or what before it. When the subject is very specific (e.g. a proper name), we may even invert the normal word order without befuddling out listeners. [6, 405]brief definitions of the subject are presented by Richard Gardiner and Timothy Cobb in Todays English Grammar from one side, and by Geoffrey Leech in An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage from the other side.Todays English Grammar the authors state that the word indicating the person or thing referred to is called the subject of the sentence. [1, 202]Leech, in his turn, notes that the subject is a grammatical term for the past of a clause or sentence which generally goes before the verb phrase (in statements). [5, 413]philologists, such as Kaushanskaya in «Грамматика английского языка», say that the subject is the principal part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the second principal part (the predicate) is grammatically dependent, i.e. in most cases it agrees with the subject in number and person. The subject can denote a living being, a lifeless thing or an idea. [13, 115]to I. P. Krylova in A Grammar of Present Day the subject is a word or a group of words which names the person, object or phenomenon the sentence informs us about. [14,85], we can identify the following common points:) the subject is normally a noun phrase or a clause with nominal function;) the subject occurs before the verb phrase in declarative clauses, and immediately after the operator in questions;) the subject has number and person concord, where applicable, with the verb phrase. [3, 158]
Б. А. Ильин in «Строй современного английского языка» examines the question first of all by formulating the structure of the definition itself. It is bound to contain the following items: (1) the meaning of the subject, that is its relation to the thought expressed in the sentence, (2) its syntactical relations in the sentence, (3) its morphological realization: here a list of morphological ways of realizing the subject must be given, but it need not be exhaustive, as it is our purpose merely to establish the essential characteristics of every part of the sentence.definition of the subject would, then, be something like this. The subject is one of the two main parts of the sentence. (1) It denotes the thing whose action or characteristic is expressed by the predicate. (2) It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence. (3) It may be expressed by different parts of speech, the most frequent ones being: a noun in the common case, a personal pronoun in the nominative case, a demonstrative pronoun occasionally, a substantivized adjective or past participle, a numeral, an infinitive, and a gerund. It