The Saint Petersburg Universityof Philosophy Studies
. Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and MusicWork
nd year studentsAlesya and Kalita Maria
History of the Museum
. Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music is located in the historical centre of the city, in the building, which belongs to one of the most splendid architectural ensembles of the city - the ensemble of Alexandrinsky Theatre. This architectural masterpiece, as well as the street, bearing nowadays the name of its creator, was built by the great Carlo Rossi.1840 in one of the buildings, surrounding the Theatre, the office of the Imperial Theatres Management settled. It was here that the fate of Russian Theatre was decided. Here the contracts with famous actors were signed. Modest Mussorgsky, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Alexander Ostrovsky, Anton Chekhov and other great men of Russian theatre brought here their works to be produced on the stage.1918 the Management was reorganized and it was decided to organize the first Theatre museum in St. Petersburg. The decree about the museum was confirmed by the People's Commissar of Enlightenment Anatoly Lunacharsky. But in fact, the Theatre Museum was founded in 1908 when in Saint-Petersburg "First Russian Theatre exhibition" was opened in the premises of Panaev Theatre. There for the first time different exhibits, later on made up the base of the present collection of the Museum, were presented to the public.basis of the museum archives was formed by the private collections of the celebrated Alexandrinsky Theatre actors Ivan Gorbunov, Maria Savina, Vladimir Davydov, and the people who were close to the Theatre - Anatoly Molchanov, Vladimir Protopopov, Levky Zheverzheyev, Sergey Svetlov, as well as the archives of the Imperial Theatres Management.first exhibition opened for the visitors on 16 May 1921. The year 1971 was marked by the creation of the museum's first branch - the N.A.Rimsky-Korsakov Museum (Zagorodny Prospekt, 28), where, in the apartment # 39, the last 15 years of the great composer's life had passed. In 1975 the F.I.Chaliapin Museum in the celebrated singer's former house (Ul.Graftio, 2b) opened. In 1985 the museum received the State Collection of Musical Instruments. In 1989 the museum was given one more building - the palace of Counts Sheremetev, the famous Fountain House, built in the 18 century. (Nab.Fontanki, 34). When the State Collection of Musical Instruments moved to the Palace, the branch became known as the Museum of Music in the Sheremetev Palace. In 1994 the other branch - the Actors Samoilov Family Museum opened in the house # 8 on Ul.Stremyannaya.first two years of the museum's existence were the period of intensive collecting. As early as in 1923 the following departments opened for the visitors: drama, ballet, opera, set modeling, set design, theatrical books, posters and placards. It was planned to open the departments of circus, cinema, foreign theatre and foreign actors in Russia. However, subsequently the museum's mission became to collect and display the materials, mainly connected with the history of Russian drama theatre. When the new musical branches (the Rimsky-Korsakov and Chaliapin Museums) opened and the museum received the State Collection of Musical Instruments, the history of music and musical theatre became an important direction of the museum's activities.museum and its branches offer various tours and lectures on the history of theatre, audio and video-concerts, meetings with outstanding actors, artists, musicians, small-scale productions, one-man shows, chamber concerts. As a cultural and educational centre, the museum receives more than 100 000 people annually.all the buildings of the museum there are halls where concerts and performances, meetings with famous actors and singers, musicians and artists, take place. The museum's aim is to connect the past and the present. The museum not only preserves the memory of the old art, but also is a hospitable house for the modern art and probably a cradle for the art of the future. Non-surprisingly, a considerable number of productions, subsequently famous, were first presented here, and many future celebrities made their debut here.
museum theatre russian
The main building of St. Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music
Painting, Graphics and Applied Art Department possesses 40,000 items. Here there is a collection of theatrical portraits, miniatures, etchings, set and costume designs, sculptures, set models. The earliest pieces date back to mid-18th century, when outstanding Italian designers Antonio Bibbiena, Giuseppe Valeriani, Antonio Canoppi brought glory to the Russian theatre. The latest acquisitions: works by artists Eduard Kocherguin, Boris Messerer, Teimuraz Murvanidze - were made in 1997.pearls of the collection are the works of artists who belonged to the "World of Art" group - Boris Anisfeld, Lev Bakst, Alexander Benois, Alexander Golovin, Konstantin Korovin, Sergei Sudeikin, and masters of the early 20th century avant-garde art: Kazimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin, Natan Altman, Leonid Tchupyatov, Nikolai Akimov, Tatyana Bruni, Alexander Tyshler, Vladimir Dmitriev.Manuscript and Document Department (21,000 items) includes music autographs of Alexander Borodin, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Dmitry Shostakovich; the director's explications of Vsevolod Meyerhold, Georgy Tovstonogov; the diaries and notebooks of Anna Pavlova, Olga Spesivtzeva; letters of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Sergei Diaghilev, Konstantin Stanislavsky. Of major importance among the Department's treasures are the personal archives of Marius Petipa, Fyodor Chaliapin, Agrippina Vaganova, Fyodor Lopukhov, Tatyana Vyacheslova.is a large collection of manuscripts, connected with the work of the main St.Petersburg theatres: the Alexandrinsky (former Pushkin) Drama Theatre, the Mariinsky (former Kirov) Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Musorgsky (Maly) Opera and Ballet Theatre. The dates range from 1725 to 1997.the Museum collection there are authographs of A.Blok, M.Gorky, V.Mayakovsky, V. Nemirovich-Danchenko, K.Stanislavsky, M. Petipa, A.Chekhov, S.Eisenstein, M.Battistini, A.Patti, J.Rossini, M.Taglioni and others.Department (8,000 exhibits). Here are actors' personal belongings, decorations, orders and memorial medals, conductor's batons, articles of the 18-20th centuries theatre life, touching gifts of the audience to its idols - ballerinas Anna Pavlova, Tamara Karsavina, conductor Eduard Napravnik, singers Nikolai Figner and Ivan Yershov. The gem of the Museum collection is a set of ballet shoes - from Maria Taglioni's to Natalia Makarova's. It allows one to trace the evolution of the female dancing technique.is also an extremely rare Collection of Theatrical Costumes, 2,000 in number. It reflects the artistic versatility of the different theatrical epochs. Here there are costumes of the legendary first night performance of M.Petipa's "Sleeping Beauty" (1890); the costumes of Fokin's ballets, designed by Benois, Bakst, Anisfeld, Golovin, Roerich; as well as the costumes for the experimental ballets of the 1920's- '30's of the choreographic innovator Fyodor Lopukhov.and Negatives Collection (240,000 items) is the largest of its kind in Russia. There are portraits of actors in life and on the stage, the unique photographs of Diaghilev's "Russian Ballets" rehearsals, the mise en scenes of opera, ballet and drama performances, photographs from the family albums of the Stravinsky, Komissarjevskaya, Kshesinskaya.of Playbills and Programmes (56,000 items) recreates the chronicle of theatrical events, from late 18th century and up to our days. Here we may learn about the Petersburg-Leningrad tours of the Moscow Art Theatre of Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko, the Moscow Chamber Theatre headed by A.Tairov; about the Russian tours of the European celebrities Maria Taglioni, Enrico Caruso, Titto Ruffo, Sarah Bernhardt, Anna Magnani, Jean-Louis Barrault, Peter Brook.
of Russian theater
back for the roots of theatre in Russia we find that the first theatricals were pagan shows with dramatic recitations of fables, tales and proverbs, and singing and dances, performed by skomorokhi, traveling minstrels. The Orthodox Church and authorities persecuted those daring lovers of liberty who were sort of spiritual guides for country folks maintaining close link to pagan traditions. The skomorokh tradition was so strong that in spite of the vehement persecution it lasted for a long time - till the end of the 17th century. an alternative to the pagan theatre in the 16th century there appeared church theatre performing Biblical stories. year 1672 saw the opening of the first theatre in Russia that would stage plays on Biblical subjects. That was the theatre at the court of tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.1702 Peter the First ordered to build a public theatre on Red Square. The theatre seated several hundred spectators. Finally, in 1720 Englishman Medox put Peters Theatre at the corner of Theatrical Square to stage operas and dramas. life in St.-Petersburg starts from 1752 when Fyodor Volkovs amateurish troupe was invited from Yaroslavl town. end of the 18th - early 19th saw serf theatre springing up in many estates.the 19th century Moscow and St.-Petersburg become centres of theatrical life: the Maly (Small) Theatre was founded in 1824 and the Bolshoi (Big) Theatre replaced the burned Peters Theatre in 1825. Alexandrinsky Drama Theatre was founded in St. - Petersburg in 1832. first masterpieces of Russian drama were brilliant plays by Griboyedov and Gogol. By the middle of the century there