Smart House - the house of Future
Yelena SamarID: 100035178270d Management Information Systems
Table of contents
Introductionof developmentand smart house systemsSmart House worksprice of smart houseto the most expensive smart house in the worldHouse-friend of elders#1#2cited page
smart house multiroom elder
Imagine a businessman giving clear instructions over mobile phone on the way to his car. He tells someone to water the grass in front of his house, to make a coffee by 7 pm, to set temperature in the house 20.6 °С and relative humidity on the level of 70%, to turn on the light in the yard and hall and to prepare immediate information about inbox mail. After 73 seconds he sits in his car and he is sure that by the time he will get home all the directions will be done in details. And this someone, who was assigned to do all these things, is not his wife or housemaid it is central computer in his house. Described situation is not a new fantastic novel by famous writer. It is reality. Sometimes this called smart house or intelligent home. But this is not fully true. Smart house is not just two wires connected together to the motion sensor. It is the conception, which allows us to collaborate a lot of devices into one coordinated organism., what is written above is not the whole capacities of smart house. Currently smart houses are also used in order to help elder people. Some of these houses are built and programmed so that that they just help to elders to find things, and control if they have forgotten to turn off something. Others are used for more valuable purposes. They are using systems which help to prevent deaths from falling, or systems that help to avoid deaths caused by heart attacks. Before looking at these cases, lets explore what the smart house is and how it works.
History of development
idea of creating smart house first appeared in USA. Rich and successful Americans started equipping their houses with electronic devices in 1950th.Buildings first appeared as a complex solution. The base of these buildings was cable structured networks. The system allowed using one cable for several purposes, such as: phone line, computer network, security systems and etc. Later, this system was developed into multiplex system, which allowed transferring different data through one cable at the same time. The speed of the cable system development was so fast that by the end of house building the system became old.of the development in this sphere seemed more than very profitable, organizations spent huge amount of money on this. As a result, the idea of smart house appeared.1978, the first companies who used this idea were X10 USA and Leviton. They developed technology for controlling home appliances by using home wires. In X10 system the role of receivers play devices and appliances, and remote controls or keypads play the role of transmitters. Nowadays, X10 is considered as an old system, because it was created for controlling lighting devices and supported only six commands of charge control. However it was not enough create smart house. In the attempts to find the solution a lot of companies joined into EIA (Electronics Industry Alliance). This group developed CEBus (Consumer Electronic Bus) standard, which was approved in 1992. Now this standard is open, and every company can produce equipment which uses CEBus protocol. The main advantage of CEBus, comparing to X10, is the speed of data exchange, which achieves 10 kbt/sec, not depending on the type of medium.of the first smart houses was built in Japan. It is a house of Ken Sakamura, an associate professor at the Univesity of Tokiyos department of information science. He called his brainchild TRON ( The Real-time Operating system Nucleus). He designed this house as an experimental project. He developed with the time: used new technologies, added new gadgets. The sensors opened the windows when there was a pleasant breeze from the sea, and closed them when there was a storm. If the radio played very loud, system automatically closed the windows, so the sound will not disturb neighbors. These principles nowadays are as a base systems, which exist in every smart house. (Gilmore)wires are not so popular. So more modern systems operate by using radiowaves, wi-fi or cell phone signals. The two most popular and practical radio networks are ZigBee and Z-Wave. These networks are referred to the mesh networks. The principle of mesh networks is that the message sent from remote control or control panel have more than one way to get to its destination.Wave uses a Source Routing Algorithm to determine the fastest way for messages. There is a code in each Z-Wave device. When it is plugged into the system, the network controller reads the code, analyzes it, recognizes, determines its location and adds to its network. After the command was sent, controller, with the help of algorithm makes a decision how to send a message.s name says it all for itself. By using this technology the messages are sent on the zigzag path like bees, finding the best way to receiver. ZigBee has one advantage comparing to Z-Wave. If a company wants to built a ZigBee-compatible product, it does not need to pay any licensing fees. (How Smart Homes Work: Smart Home Software and Technology.)
and smart house systems
systems are divided into two categories. The first category refers to building management systems. BMS are the systems which control buildings mechanical and electrical equipment, such as lightening, ventilation, climate control and etc. All the controls are implemented by the central computer. As a rule these systems use centralized control. Usually these systems are used in offices and big industrial firms.BMS as a term is relatively new and its concept was introduced in 1970. The term really existed since the introduction of complex electronic devices that are capable of collecting data for the purpose of managing services such as power, lighting, heating and etc. Early terms of BMS were BAS (Building Automation System) and EMS (Energy Management System). BMS was something very new, which allowed changing analog signals to digital. By this change signals could be sent to longer distances.BMS, different electromechanical systems were used in controlling building. Usually there were panels with manual switches or lamp indicators. Also alarms were used to help workers finding failures. The progress in signal communication technology allowed the evolution from hard home wires to very fast IP based cable.systems usually include:
·Power systems (electric power system)
·HVAC system ( Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning)
·Security and observation system
·Magnetic card and access system
·Fire alarm system.
Generally the systems work in the following way. A lot of sensors are connected to the central system. These sensors collect different information. Some sensors collect the data about the temperature in the house and outside as well. Others gather information about the level of the light in each room. There are even sensors which control the speed of air in the airshaft. After collecting all the data from the detectors, system analyzes them and makes a decision depending on the settings installed by the operator. In its decision it usually decides where to allocate this or other electricity power.the emergency conditions the system automatically stops all the processes in the damaged area. The operator who is looking after the system is immediately informed about the problem, by the special indicator on the screen. System also shows precise location and automatically calls repair force.though these systems are expensive, they compensate all the money paid for them by the economy of the energy and electricity. For example if in winter it is warmer than usually the system automatically changes the temperature in the rooms. Operator also can program the system so, that during the night heating system will be off, and just an hour before all employees come to their work places it warms the rooms up. The use of BMS saves money not only for energy and electricity but also for the hiring a lot of workers. The firm does not need a lot of specialists to control the whole complex. It needs just one operator who will be near the controlling computer to watch over the system.as all other systems BMS has its own disadvantages. It is impossible to add more and more new devices without affecting working speed of the system. The more devices you connect to the central computer, the slower it will work. Thats why usually these systems are used to control big and anthropogenic constructions. For home usage more comfortable the systems of the second category.systems are called smart houses. They are very popular in the living buildings where on the first place there is a comfort: in apartments, in big office centers, in houses. But the most popular in using smart house systems are cottages. Controlling temperature, light and atmosphere in 4 staged house is very difficult. Automatics here is a very useful helper. It is irreplaceable in the apartment with more than 3-4 rooms. Smart house allows you to feel comfortable wherever you are. Comfort is achieved by not doing some process manually, which can be done automatically. For example by the time owner of the house comes home, the system automatically regulates the lighting, warms up the dinner and fills the bath.