Scotland (Шотландия)

  Who in Scotland consider themselves of purer Celtic blood? When was a new Scottish Parliament elected? What was the Beaker civilization famous

Scotland (Шотландия)



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Moscow State Pedagogical University



the department of sociology,

economics and law


chair of English language






Course paper on the topic






by Gribacheva Alexandra,

a student of the 3rd year


















Moscow 2000The plan:



I. A few words about this work.

II. Scotland how does it look like?

1.Geographical position.


3.Plant & animal life.

4.Natural resources.


6.Scotlands government.

The main part.


I. Early peoples of Scotland & their relations.

II. “… we will never consent to subject ourselves to the dominion

of the English…”

III. Scotlands beautiful capital.


2.Edinburghs Castle

3.The Military Tattoo

4.St. Giles Cathedral.

5.Edinburghs museums.

6.Where life is one long festival.




1.”A wee dram”.

2.Scottish national dress.

3.A few words about tartan.

4.The national musical instrument of the Scots.

5.Highlands dances and games.

6.The famous Loch Ness.

7.St. Andrews Cross.

II.Scotland for every season.




Practical part.






I.A few words about this work.


Though Scotland is a part of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland it still remains an individual country with its own traditions, customs, history and the way of life. In one word, Scotland is not England at all. It is a country with a unique culture full of ancient legends, bright contrasts and mysterious castles. Secrets and mystery always appear immediately when you open a book about Scotland.

But unfortunately you can come across such a problem as lack of literature on this topic. I was lucky to find several books that gave exhaustive information about this magic country. I was so exited by the Scottish national heroes and by this independent nation that I decided to find out more information about them.

Some people say that if you havent been in Venice you havent seen Italy at all. I can say that if you havent been in Scotland you havent seen Britain at all. As for me I was lucky to visit the capital of England London. But alas! I didnt have any opportunity to visit or just to have a glimpse of Scotland, a land of festivals, kilts and bagpipes.

It seemed to me that after visiting London I know everything about Britain. And only after reading several books about Scotland I realized how wrong I had been. Now I can just say: “I wish I were in Scotland!”

I was seized with an idea of studying more about it and that is why I decided to take this topic for my course paper. I am not sure that I will be able to tell everything that I found out about this country and its people. But I promise to depict all unforgettable events and traditions of the Scottish people that impressed me most of all.

II.Scotland what does it look like?



1.Geographical position


Scotland, administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is

bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by the North Sea; on the southeast by England; on the south by Solway Firth, which

partly separates it from England, and by the Irish Sea; and on the west by

North Channel, which separates it from Ireland, and by the Atlantic Ocean.

As a geopolitical entity Scotland includes 186 nearby islands, the majority of which are contained in three groups-namely, the Hebrides, also known as the Western Islands, situated off the western coast; the Orkney Islands, situated off the northeastern coast; and the Shetland Islands, situated northeast of the Orkney Islands. The largest of the other islands is the Island of Arran. The area, including the islands, is 78,772 sq km (30,414 sqmi).

Scotland has a very irregular coastline. The western coast in particular is deeply penetrated by numerous arms of the sea, most of which are narrow submerged valleys, known locally as sea lochs, and by a number of broad indentations, generally called firths. The principal firths are the Firth of Lorne, the Firth of Clyde, and Solway Firth.

Scotland is characterized by an abundance of streams and lakes (lochs). Notable among the lakes, which are especially numerous in the central and northern regions, are Loch Lomond (the largest), Loch Ness, Loch Tay, and Loch Katrine.

Many of the rivers of Scotland, in particular the rivers in the west, are short, torrential streams, generally of little commercial importance. The longest river of Scotland is the Tay; the Clyde, however, is the principal navigational stream, site of the port of Glasgow. Other chief rivers include the Forth, Tweed, Dee, and Spey.




Like the climate of the rest of Great Britain, that of Scotland is subject to the moderating influences of the surrounding seas. As a result of these influences, extreme seasonal variations are rare, and temperate winters and cool summers are the outstanding climatic features. Low temperatures however, are common during the winter season in the mountainous districts of the interior. In the western coastal region, which is subject to the moderating effects of the Gulf Stream, conditions are somewhat milder than in the east.


3.Plant and Animal Life


The most common species of trees indigenous to Scotland are oak and conifers-chiefly fir, pine, and larch. Large forested areas, however, are rare, and the only important woodlands are in the southern and eastern Highlands. Except in these wooded areas, vegetation in the elevated regions consists largely of heather, ferns, mosses, and grasses. Saxifrage, mountain willow, and other types of alpine and arctic flora occur at elevations above 610 m (2000 ft). Practically all of the cultivated plants of Scotland were imported from America and the European continent.

The only large indigenous mammal in Scotland is the deer. Both the red deer and the roe deer are found, but the red deer, whose habitat is the Highlands, is by far the more abundant of the two species. Other indigenous mammals are the hare, rabbit, otter, ermine, pine marten, and

wildcat. Game birds include grouse, blackcock, ptarmigan, and waterfowl. The few predatory birds include the kite, osprey, and golden eagle. Scotland is famous for the salmon and trout that abound in its streams and lakes. Many species of fish, including cod, haddock, herring, and various types of shellfish, are found in the coastal waters.


4.Natural Resources


Scotland, like the rest of the island of Great Britain, has significant reserves of coal. It also possesses large deposits of zinc, chiefly in the south. The soil is generally rocky and infertile, except for that of the Central Lowlands. Northern Scotland has great hydroelectric power potential and contains Great Britain's largest hydroelectric generating stations. Beginning in the late 1970s, offshore oil deposits in the North Sea became an important part of the Scottish economy. The most important city here is Aberdeen which is the oil centre of the country. Ships and helicopters travel from Aberdeen to the North Sea oil rigs. Therefore, Scotland is rather rich in natural resources and sometimes can even condition to England.




The people of Scotland, like those of Great Britain in general, are descendants of various racial stocks, including the Picts, Celts, Scandinavians, and Romans. Scotland is a mixed rural-industrial society. Scots divide themselves into Highlanders, who consider themselves of purer Celtic blood and retain a stronger feeling of the clan, and Lowlanders, who are largely of Teutonic blood.


6.Scotlands government.


Government in Scotland is in four tiers. A new Scottish Parliament was elected in 1999, following devolution of powers from the United Kingdom Parliament in London. This is the first time Scotland has had its own parliament in 300 years. The Scottish Parliament, which sits in Edinburgh, is responsible for most aspects of Scottish life. The national parliament in Westminster (London) retains responsibility for areas such as defence, foreign affairs and taxation. The European Parliament in Brussels (Belgium) exercises certain powers vested in the European Union.

The Scottish Parliament is supported by the Scottish Executive also based in Edinburgh. The Scottish Government is led by a First Minister. A Secretary of State for Scotland remains part of the UK Cabinet, and is supported by the S

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