Roman Catholic labor movement in Grodno province
(last third of XIX - beginning of XX century)
There was nothing surprising in the fact that the Roman Catholic Church in the person of Pope Leo XIII addressed the issue of working relationships with owners, employers. The spirit of revolutionary change has gone beyond the economy, and its influence felt in politics, culture and religion. Epistle of the Roman Pope Leo XIII "On the situation of workers" on May 15, 1891, also known as the encyclical "Rerum novarum", was a response to the challenge of modernity, primarily directed against the Socialists, who thought to destroy private property with the transfer of personal property under the jurisdiction State or local authorities. The Church tried to make physic through the establishment of Catholic workers' associations, fraternities, unions. And the predecessors of the Christian societies, church workers called pre-existing fraternity society with religious institutions, and monastic orders [1, pp. 20].
Working in the archives of Grodno, have discovered that in 1886 there were g. Belostoke guild Brotherhood of the following workshops: carpenter, blacksmith and metal worker, who had a charter granted to them in 1759 by Count Jan Branitsky Clemens and his wife, written Polish on parchment. Diploma was defined as the cost of entering the shop and other charges, and therefore, according to literacy, in every shop had a separate stored in the selected workshop fiduciary account, which were made by craftsmen and apprentices fees, no more than one ruble three months. Of the total collection took place the following expenses: funeral of each of the insolvent master, his wife and children, masters granting benefits to priiskaniya work in the shops to buy candles, which are used in the memorial church service for the dead masters. In addition, each of these departments had banners that are stored in a local church and are in full possession of the clergy [2, pp.31]. Bialystok guild of the Roman Catholic fraternity twice a year, ordered the Liturgy: the opening day of workshops and a funeral in memory of the deceased shop [2, pp.7].
In 1886, the tsarist police were able to identify and close following of brotherhood: Gozhskom church in Grodno district, established 40 years ago and has 18 members, with church Mezhirechskom Volkovysk County, numbering 8 peasants in Grodno Bernardine Church Fellowship of the brick plant, has 36 members, plant woodcutters and brotherhood that existed more than 20 years, with 34 members, with Ross Fellowship Church, which consisted of 14 peasants in the Bryansk church Belsky County brotherhood tanners, blacksmiths, shoemakers [2, pp.12, 20, 53]. Up to 1863 active in the fraternity were Slonim cobbler, carpenter, paint and blacksmith shops, based on the literacy of King John Casimir. By 1887 among these brotherhoods continued to exist only to collect money, but not in a certain amount, but depending on the state, when issuing certificates of title of master and apprentice. Expenditures from this collection were made at the discretion of the craft to the needs of elders only belonging to the shops, in most cases, the organization of banquets [2, pp.39-40].
Revolution 1905-1907 gg. opened up new opportunities for organized labor. April 3, 1907 in the register of societies and unions in the Grodno province had been made "Christian Workers' Union. In this society, working as composed out of the political parties, all sorts of political debate excluded. Activities of the society spread to Grodno province [3, pp.1]. Founding members of this organization were as follows: Stepan Yulyanovich Pushkevich, Adam Osipovich Artsipievsky, Ignatius Osipovich Prokopchik, Leonard Arutkowski, Ignatius Ignatievich Dashuta, Valerian Petrovich Sacra - all born in Grodno. Chairman of the society was a priest Stanislaw Bernice [3, pp.1, 42]. At the invitation of Chairman of the society began to buy into his library books, newspapers and magazines in Russian and Polish languages [3, pp.43]. During the existence of the library was donated 480 volumes of books, which resulted in the order of a board member of B. Sacra [3, pp.54, 105].
Union members were divided on the real, honorable and sorevnovateley. The real member of society could become every honest, sober behavior of worker-Christian. Honorary Fellow - the man who once brought the benefit of society 50 rubles, or doing any other substantial donation. Member-sorevnovatelem - who every year brought into the public treasury three rubles. Wishing to enter in the number of actual members of the organization was obliged to apply to the Board of society and provide a guarantee of two full members. Name of the candidate and the sign was to be guarantors in the Company premises within two weeks. The protest by members of the alliance against the candidate told privately personally rule over the same two weeks. If the board refused to accept, it is not obligated to explain the reasons for its resolution. The responsibilities of each member were respected and faithfully the duties of a Christian: to develop the virtues of their class, mainly temperance, diligence, frugality, solidarity and integrity [3, pp.12-14].
Priest S. Bernice remained honorary chairman of all meetings of the accounting society. S. Bernice glorified by the fact that the organization opposed the staging of performances in Russian. May 2, 1908 Prince-V. A. Drutsko Mrs. Lyubetsky for services and donations for the benefit of society was unanimously elected an honorary member [3, pp.46, 49].
In 1907, "The Christian Workers' Association" consisted of 114 members, of them - 4 honorary. During this year the organization held two family evenings with dancing and three plays. For members of the society was accepted as follows: in the case of the death of his wife were given relief in the amount of 20 rubles to the deaths of children under age 17 - 10 rubles; death in children older than 17 years of age and fit for labor - the money was not given because they may be members society [3, pp.54]. In 1908 it was decided to reduce the contributions for full members and 40 kopecks. Tariff for members sorevnovateley remained the same - three rubles. In addition, doctors for the treatment of members of society to pay the fee in full from the inaugural fund. The patient pays only a cab [3, pp.52].
June 15, 1907 on their way to Roman Catholic procession in the street Kupecheskaya Grodno on the balcony of the house № 17 Calixto Avgusevicha in which the rule was "Christian Workers' Union, members of the society, and K. V. Sacro Avgusevichem initiated by the priest in. Bernice was arranged altar. However, according to the imperial order of January 29, 1904 and on 13 September 1907 of the Vilna governor-general of all that related to religious processions, without the prior permission of the provincial leadership suppressed: the perpetrators were fined 500 rubles, or arrest for up to three months. Grodno region governor, instead of directly punishing the guilty, did not approve the company's charter bakeries and bakery on shares in the "Christian Workers' Union" [3, pp.73]. In 1908, the society also forbade dancing nights and carry the Christmas tree, which made the main income of the organization: more than 300 rubles a year. Grodno governor also banned the company's charter to change [3, pp.73]. By 1911 is the last mention of the Union, has only 38 full members and 37 members sorevnovateley [3, pp.105]. Most likely, the existence of society gradually disappeared as a result of progressive restrictive actions by the civil authorities.
The aim of society is to raise education among workers in the religious-moral, intellectual and social relations. In order to implement the intended target organization has the right to organize regular meetings at which they were made instructive reading, friendly carnivals and other allowable entertainment, organize libraries and reading rooms, mediate contentious issues and helped pacify misunderstandings between employers and workers, contributed to the device funeral fund, auxiliary-savings and other similar institutions, as well as consumer stores, planned and publishing their own newspapers [3, pp.41].
According to the regulations of the Union appeared that a member of society could be anyone who has paid three-ruble fee, and each member of the board enrolled in the society. In addition, the board could appoint outsiders to the post of secretary and librarian at the meetings of the society, which were delivered public lectures and readings, to attend outsiders, and this in turn did not like the police [3, pp.45].
June 15, 1907 on their way to Roman Catholic procession in the street Kupecheskaya Grodno on the balcony of the house № 17 Calixto Avgusevicha in which the rule was "Christian Workers' Union, members of the society, and K. V. Sacro Avgusevichem initiated by the priest in. Bernice was arranged altar. However, according to the imperial order of January 29, 1904 and on 13 September 1907 of the Vilna governor-general of all that related to religious processions, without the prior permission of the provincial leadership suppressed: the perpetrators were fined 500 rubles, or arrest for up to three months. Grodno region governor, instead of directly punishing the guilty, did not approve the company's charter bakeries and bakery on shares in the "Christian Workers' Union" [3, pp.73]. In 1908, the society also forbade dancing nights and carry the Christmas tree, which made the main income of the organization: more than 300 rub