Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

  Бродович О.И. Диалектная вариативность английского языка: аспекты теории. Л., 1988 Маковский М.М. Английская диалектология. Современные английские диалекты Великобритании. М., 1980 Шахбагова Д.А.

Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

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low [lav]

owe [au]“oo”North-WesternWesternMiddle/Eastern→ [ı]:

good [gıd]

hood [hıd]

foot [fıt]

blood [blıd]

stood [stıd]

bloom [blım]

broom [brım]

moon [mın]

loom [lım]

root [rıt]

spoon [spın]→ [ö]:

book [bök]

cook [kök]

crook [krök]

look [lök]

took [tök]

good [göd]

foot [föt]

stood [stöd]

→ [ ]:

book [b k]

brook [br k]

crook [kr k]

look [l k]

took [t k]

good [g d]

foot [f t]

soot [s t]

flood [fl d]Eastern→ [ ]:

book [b k]

brook [br k]

crook [kr k]

look [l k]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“er”, “ir”, “ur”Southern→ [a:]:

learn [la:n]

earth [a:θ]

bird [ba:d]

birch [ba:t∫]

merchant [ma:t∫∂nt]

herb [ha:b]

work [wa:k]“or”→ [a:]: fork [fa:k], horse [ha:s], horn [ha:n], short [∫a:t], Morning [ma:nıŋ], word [wa:d]“ew”EasternNorthern→ [ü:]:

dew [dü:]

few [fü:]→ [jav]:

dew [djau]

few [fjau]

new [njau]

2. Consonantism[w] in the beginning of the word or before “h”old [w l]

oak [w k]

hot [w t]

home [w m]

orchard [wurt∫∂t]

hole [hwul]

hope [hwup]

open [wupen][w] is not pronounced:

week [ouk]

swick [su:k]“w” before “r”is not pronouncedWesternis not pronounced→ [vr]:

wreck, wren, wrench, wrap, write, wrong

e.g. Ye vratch, yeve vrutten that avrang.

(= You wretch, youve written that all wrong.)“wh” at the beginning of a word is [w], [u:], [u∂]in the middle of a word [w] is pronouncedboy [bwo], moist [mw ıst], toad [twud], cool [kwul], country [kwıntrı]“f”, “th”, “s”, “sh” are voicedFriday [vræ:dı], friends [vrın], fleas [vle:z], and in the these words: foe, father, fair, fear, find, fish, foal, full, follow, filth, fist, fire, fond, fault, feast, force, forge, fool.

[θ]: thought [ð :t], thick [ðık], thigh [ðaı], and in the words: from, freeze, fresh, free, friend, frost, frog, froth, flesh, fly flock, flood, fleece, fling, flower, fail.“t” at the beginning of the word before a vowelNothern→ [t∫]:

team [t∫em],

tune [t∫un],

Tuesday [t∫uzde]

East D “t” in the middle of the word is voiced:

bottle [b dl],

kettle [kedl],

little [lıdl],

nettle [nedl],

bottom [b dm],

matter [med∂],

cattle [k dl],

kittens [kıdnz]“t” in the middle of the word is voicedWesternbottle [b dl],

kettle [kedl],

little [lıdl],

nettle [nedl],

bottom [b dm],

matter [med∂],

cattle [k dl],

kittens [kıdnz]The consonant [t] in (the French borrowings) hasnt become [t∫] as it is in RP:picture [pıkt∂r], nature [net∂r], feature [fı∂t∂r]the middle [t] sometimes disappears in the positions before “m…l”, “n…l”, “m…r” Westernbrimstone [brımsn]

empty [empı]

The same happens to the middle [b]:

chamber > chimmer,

embers > emmers,

brambles > brimmelsbetween “l” and “r”; “r” and “l”; “n” and “r” a parasitic [d] has developedparlour [pa:ld∂r], tailor [taıld∂r], smaller [sm :ld∂r], curls [ka:dlz], hurl [a:dl], marl [ma:dl], quarrel [kw :dl], world [wa:dl], corner [ka:nd∂r]Westerna parasitic [d] appeared after [l, n, r]:

feel [fi:ld]

school [sku:ld]

idle [aıdld]

mile [maıdl]

born [ba∂nd]

soul [s :ld]

soon [zu:nd]

gown [gaund]

swoon [zaund]

wine [waınd]

miller [mıl∂d]

scholar [sk l∂d]the middle [d] in the word “needle” comes after [l]: [ni:ld]EasternIn the word “disturb” [b] is pronounced as [v] -

[dis, t∂:v]the first [θ] is pronounced as [ð]thank [ðæŋk] and in other words: thatch, thaw, thigh, thin, thing, think, third, thistle, thong, thought, thousand, thumb, thunder, ThursdaySometimes [θ] is pronounced as [t] at the end of the word:

lath [lat]WesternIn some words [s] at the beginning of the word is pronounced as [∫]:

suet [∫uıt].

The same happens when [s] is in the middle of the word:

first [fer∫t]

breast [brı∫t]

next [nı∫t]North-West W: [s] is sometimes pronounced as []: sure [u∂r]“sh”, “sk” at the end of the wordWestern→ [s]:

cask [k s]

flask [fl s]

leash [li:s]

tusk [tus]

Sometimes instead of [k] [t∫] is heard:

back [b t∫]

wark [wa:t∫]sometimes the initial letter or a syllable is apsentWesternEasternbelieve, deliver, desire, directly, disturb, eleven, enough, except, occasion, inquest, epidemicthe initial “cl”→ [tl]: clad [tlad], clap, clay, claw, clean, cleave, clergy, clerk, clew, cliff, climb, cling, clip, cloak, close, clot, cloth, cloud, clout“gl” in the beginning of the word→ [dl]: glad, glass, glisten, gloom, glove, glow[l] in the middle of the word isnt pronouncedWesternEasternAlready

shoulder [∫a:d∂r]the Middle/Eastern[l] is often → [ ]:

bill [bı ]

tool [tu ]

nibble [nıb ]

milk [mı k]

silk [sı k]

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Grammar.

3.1 Nouns.

The definite article.

  1. There isnt the definite article before “same”: Tis sames I always told ee”.
  2. The of-phrase “the… of” is of ten used instead of the possessive pronoun (e.g. “the head of him “instead of” his head”)

The plural form of a noun.

  1. In many cases -s (es) can be added for several times:

e.g. steps [steps∂z] (South Som.)

  1. in some cases [n] is heard at the end of the word:

e.g. keys [ki:n] (Wil.)

cows [kain] (Dev.)

bottles [botln] (South-W. Dev.)

primroses [prımr zn] (Dev.)

  1. but sometimes [s] is heard in the words ended with “-n”

e.g. oxen [ ksnz] (Western Som.)

rushes [rıksnz] (Dev.)

  1. some nouns have the same form in the singular and in the plural:

e.g. chicken - chickens [t∫ık] (Som.)

pipe - pipes [paıp] (Som.)

  1. sometimes the plural form of the noun is used insted of the singular form:

a house [auzn] (Southern Wil.)

 

3.2 Gender.

The full characteristic of Gender in South-Western English Id like to base on the part of the article by Paddock. Paddock uses the historical lebel “Wessex” to describe the countries of South-Western England.

 

3.2.1 Gender making in Wessex-type English.

“It is usually claimed that English nouns lost their grammatical gender during the historical period called Middle English, roughly 1100-1500. But this claim needs some qualification. What actually happened during the Middle English period was that more overt gender marking of English nouns gave way to more covert marking. As in Lyons (1968:281-8), the term gender is used here to refer to morphosyntactic classes of nouns. It is true that the loss of adjective concord in Middle English made gender marking less overt; but Modern English still retains some determiner concord which allows us to classify nouns (Christophersen and Sandved 1969). In addition, Modern English (ModE), like Old English (OE) and Middle English (ME), possesses pronominal distinctions which enable us to classify nouns.

We can distinguish at least three distinctly different types of gender marking along the continuum from most overt to most covert. The most overt involves the marking of gender in the morphology of the noun itself, as in Swahili (Lyons 1968:284-6). Near the middle of the overt-covert continuum we could place the marking of gender in adnominals such as adjectives and determiners. At or near the covert end of the scale we find the marking of gender in pronominal systems.

During all three main historical stages of the English language (OE, ME, ModE) one has been able to assign nouns to three syntactic classes called MASCULINE, FEMININE and NEUTER. However, throughout the recorded history of English this three-way gender marking has become less and less overt. In OE all three types of gender marking were present. But even in OE the intrinsic marking (by noun inflections) was often ambiguous in that it gave more information about noun declension (ie paradigm class) than about gender (ie concord class). The least ambiguous marking of gender in OE was provided by the adnominals traditionally called demonstratives and definite articles. In addition, gender discord sometimes occurred in OE, in that the intrinsic gender marking (if any) and the adnominal marking, on the one hand, did not always agree with the gender of the pronominal, on the other hand. Standard ME underwent the loss of a three-way gender distinction in the morphology of both the nominals and the adnominals. This meant that Standard ModE nouns were left with only the most covert type of three-way gender marking, that of the pronominals. Hence we can assign a Standard ModE noun to the gender class MASCULINE, FEMININE or NEUTER by depending only on whether it selects he, she or it respectively as its proform.

During the ME and Early ModE period

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