Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

  Бродович О.И. Диалектная вариативность английского языка: аспекты теории. Л., 1988 Маковский М.М. Английская диалектология. Современные английские диалекты Великобритании. М., 1980 Шахбагова Д.А.

Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

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anguages. By 1200 B.C. Celtic civilisation, a heroic culture with its own laws and religion is first known. It is from this period that the first king lists and legends are believed to come.

 

3. How is Cornish Related to other Celtic Languages?

Between 1500 B.C. and the first encounters with the Romans (around 350 B.C.), the Celtic languages are believed to split into two distinct groups, the p and q Celtic branches. Cornish, Welsh and Breton (to which Cornish is most closely related) are the three remaining p Celtic languages. Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx being the q Celtic tongues.

 

4. The Decline of Cornish.

Cornish developed pretty much naturally into a modern European language until the 17th century, after which it came under pressure by the encroachment of English. Factors involved in its decline included the introduction of the English prayer book, the rapid introduction of English as a language of commerce and most particularly the negative stigma associated with what was considered by Cornish people themselves as the language of the poor.

5. The Rebirth of Cornish.

Cornish died out as a native language in the late 19th century, with the last Cornish speaker believed to have lived in Penwith. By this time however, Cornish was being revived by Henry Jenner, planting the seeds for the current state of the language and it is supposed that the last native speaker was the fishwoman Dolly Pentreath.

 

6. Standard Cornish.

Standard Cornish was developed from Jenners work by a team under the leadership of Morton Nance, culminating in the first full set of grammars, dictionaries and periodicals. Standard Cornish (Unified) is again being developed through UCR (Unified Cornish Revised), and incorporates most features of Cornish, including allowing for Eastern and Western forms of pronunciation and colloquial and literary forms of Cornish.

 

7. Who uses Cornish Today?

Today Cornish typically appeals to all age groups and to those either who have an empathy with Cornwall, who have Cornish roots or perhaps have moved to Cornwall from elsewhere. One of the great successes of Cornish today is ifs wide appeal. After a break in native speakers for nearly one hundred years, Cornwall now has many children who now have Cornish as a native language along side English, and many more who are fluent in the language.

 

8. Government Recognition for Cornish.

Cornish is the only modern Celtic language that receives no significant support from government, despite the growing numbers learning Cornish, and the immense good will towards it from ordinary Cornish people and from elsewhere.

This contrasts strongly with the favourable stand taken by the Manx government towards Manx for example, as evidenced by Manx primary school places being made generally available.

Recently, the UK government scrapped the Cornish GCSE. Lack of Cornish language facilities and support is no longer just a language issue, but is rapidly becoming a civil rights and political issue too. Despite the growing support of councillors in Cornwall, some key individuals in County Hall continue to make clear their hostility to the language.

e.g. of the Cornish language:

“Pyw yw an Gernowyon?

Pobel Geltek yw an bobel a Gernow . Yn osow hendasek, an wtas Gorfewenna yn Wtas Dumnonii, neb a dregas yn Kernow, Dewnans ha Gwtas an Haf.

Y hyltyr bos del An Gernowyon a wrug trega yn Kernow hedro an dallath gonys tyr adro 3000 K.C.. An dallath gonys tyr yn Kernow a vo dallath an os proto Yndo-Europek, dres an tavajow Keltek ha tavajow Ytaiek dallath dhe dhysplegya.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part III. Peculiarities of South-Western Dialects.

1. Vocalisation.

DevonshireSomersetshireWiltshire“a” after “w”is realized as [a:]:

wasp [wa:sp]

watch [wa:t∫]

want [wa:nt]

wander [wa:nd ]is realized as [æ]:

warm [wærm]

warn [wærn]

wart [wært]“asp”, “ass”, “ast”, “a” → [æ]: grass [græs], glass [glæs], fast [fæst]“al + a consonant”“l” is realized as [a:] or

[ :]:

talk [ta:k]

walk [wa:k]

chalk [t∫a:k]

balk [ba:k]a + l, a + llin the open syllable

“a” → [æ]:

crane [kræn]

frame [fræm]

lame [læm]

make [mæk]

name [næm]in the open syllable

“a” → [æ]:

crane [kræn]

frame [fræm]

lame [læm]

make [mæk]

name [næm]The first sound is vowelacre [jakr]

ale [jal]

acorn [jak∂rn]

hare [hja:r]

ache [jek]

acorn [jek∂rn]

behave [bıhjev]“e” in the closed syllables → “a”NothernWesternegg [ag], fetch [fat∫], step [stap],

wretch [rat∫], stretch [strat∫]“e” in the closed syllables → [eı]EasternSouthernegg [eıg], stretch [streıt∫]“e” in the closed syllables → [e:]South-WesternWesternMiddle/EasternLeg [le:g], bed [be:d], hedge [he:d]if “e” follows “w” → [ :]Westernwell [w :l]

twelve [tw :lv]

wench [w :nt∫]“i” in the closed syllableNorth-WesternWestern→ [e]:

big [beg]

bid [bed]

flitch [fletch]

sit [set]

spit [spet]→ [ ]:

bill [b l]

little [l tl]

children [t∫ ldr n]

cliff [kl f]

hill [h l]

drift [dr ft]

shrimp [∫r mp]

fit [f t]

ship [∫ p]

pig [p g]

fish [f ∫]“ight” → [e]North-WesternWesternflight, rightif a nasal consonant follows “i”→ [e]:

sing [seŋ]

cling [kleŋ]→ [e]:

sing [seŋ]

cling [kleŋ]“i” before “nd”North-Western→ [e]:

bind [ben]

blind [blen]

find [ven]

grind [gren]“i” before “ld”Eastern→ [i:]:

mild [mi:ld]

wild [wi:ld]

child [t∫ıld]“i” in the open syllableSouth-WesternSouthern→ [eı]:

fly [fleı]

lie [leı]

thigh [θeı]→ [eı]:

bide [beıd]

wide [weıd]

time [teım]Eastern→ [ ı]:

fly [fl ı]

lie [l ı]“o” in the closed syllable followed by a consonantSouth-WesternEastern→ [a:]:

dog [da:g]

cross [kra:s]→ [ ]:

cot [k t]

bottom [b tm]

dog [d g]

cross [kr s]Western→ [a:]:

dog [da:g]

cross [kra:s]“o” + a nasal consonantNorth-WesternWesternWestern→ [æ]:

among [∂mæŋ]

long [læŋ]

wrong [ræŋ]→ [æ]:

among [∂mæŋ]

long [læŋ]

wrong [ræŋ]

among [∂mæŋ]

long [læŋ]

wrong [ræŋ]“ol” + a consonantWesternWestern→ [u∂]:

gold [gv∂ld]

old [u∂ld]→ [u∂]:

gold [gv∂ld]

old [u∂ld]“o” in the open syllable and “oa”Western→ [ ]:

bone [b n]

broad [br d]

rope [r p]

load [l d]“oi”→ [aı]:

choice [t∫aıs]

join [daın]

moil [maıl]

point [paınt]

spoil [spaıl]

voice [vaıs]“u” in the closed syllableSouthern→ [e]:

but [bet]

dust [dest]“ou” / ”ow”Easter→ [av]:

low [lav]

owe [au]“oo”North-WesternWesternMiddle/Eastern→ [ı]:

good [gıd]

hood [hıd]

foot [fıt]

blood [blıd]

stood [stıd]

bloom [blım]

broom [brım]

moon [mın]

loom [lım]→ [ö]:

book [bök]

cook [kök]

crook [krök]

look [lök]

took [tök]

good [göd]

foot [föt]

stood [stöd]

→ [ ]:

book [b k]

brook [br k]

crook [kr k]

look [l k]

took [t k]

good [g d]

foot [f t]

soot [s t]

flood [fl d]Eastern→ [ ]:

book [b k]

brook [br k]

crook [kr k]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“i” in the open syllableSouth-westernSouthern→ [eı]:

fly [fleı]

lie [leı]

thigh [θeı]→ [eı]:

bide [beıd]

wide [weıd]

time [teım]

 

 

Eastern→ [ ı]:

fly [fl ı]

lie [l ı]“o” in the closed syllable followed by a consonant South-westernEastern→ [a:]:

dog [da:g]

cross [kra:s]→ [ ]:

cot [k t]

bottom [b tm]

dog [d g]

cross [kr s]Western→ [a:]:

dog [da:g]

cross [kra:s]DevonshireSomersetshireWiltshire“o” + a nasal consonantNorth-westernWesternWestern→ [æ]: among [∂mæŋ], long [læŋ], wrong [wræŋ]“ol” + a consonantWesternWestern→ [u∂l]: gold [gv∂ld], old [u∂ld]“oa”Western→ [ ]:

bone [b n]

broad [br d]

rope [r p]

load [l d]“oi”→ [aı]:

choice [t∫aıs]

join [daın]

moil [maıl]

point [paınt]

spoil [spaıl]

voice [vaıs]“u” in the closed syllableSouthern→ [e]:

but [bet]

dust [dest]“ou”/“ow”Easter→ [av]:

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