,%20Sk%d0%b5ne%20<http://www.answers.com/topic/scania>,%20Sweden%20<http://www.answers.com/topic/sweden>%20and%20probably%20died%20already%20in%201719.">Kateryna. She was born on November 5, 1718 in Kristianstad <http://www.answers.com/topic/kristianstad>, Skеne <http://www.answers.com/topic/scania>, Sweden <http://www.answers.com/topic/sweden> and probably died already in 1719.
After Mazepa's death when a question of a choice of the new hetman in contrast to Ivan Skoropadsky, put in Ukraine by Peter the I, the choice had fallen to P. Orlyk, which have selected the hetman on April, 5th, 1710. In a day of elections the state Constitution, which was called a "Pacts and the Constitution of the rights and liberties of the Zaporizhyan Army" has been proclaimed. Being till the end of a life in emigration, Phillip Orlik has concluded allied contracts with Sweden (1710), the Crimean khan (1711, 1712), entered negotiations with Turkey, trying to incline these countries to war with the Moscow state for the purpose of clearing of Ukraine. In 1711 together with koshevy Konstantin Gordienko has carried out a military campaign of Zaporozhians and allied Tatar armies to Right-bank Ukraine, has received White Church, has reached to Fastivbut through change of Tatars has receded to Bendery. In the summer of 1711 Turks, Tatars together with a Polish-Ukrainian army have inflicted defeat of the Russian army over the Prut. Since 1914 after Orlyk has not realised the plans of clearing of Ukraine, he together with Gertsyk, Voynarovsky and Mirovich moves to Sweden, in 1720 - to Austria, later - to Czechia. Since 1722 to 1734 he lives in Greece in the city of Saloniki. In 1740 war between Turkey and Russia to which Phillip Orlik assigns to hope has begun. But after the conclusion between both countries of Bilogorodsky peace his hopes were not justified. Phillip Orlik has died in May, 24th, 1742 in Jassy, Moldova.
Pylyp Orlyk, high-level educated, with thin national-political mind, the ardent both conscious patriot and the fighter for independent Ukraine, was allocated in the then environment Ukrainian Cossack starshyny. Even historians XIX century, in particular Nightingales, Kluchevsky, and Kostomarov, despite an uncooperative altitude to the Ukrainian emancipating ideas, should notice its sincerity and cleanliness of gaugings. Orlyk represented entirely new type of the patriot and the intellectual which in improbably heavy conditions of emigration did not leave thought on restoration of independence of the Ukrainian state. The most active conductor of the Mazepas ideas, he has devoted the whole life to creation of the West European coalition which would help to release Ukraine. The exile, the hetman-emigrant, with small group of adherents - A. Vojnarovskim, colonel D. Gorlenkom, the general clerk І. Мaxymavych, general judge K. Dolgopolym, general osaulamy G. Gertsikom and F. Mirovichem - did a mad attempts to persuade the government of Sweden, Germany, Poland, France, Turkey on the general struggle against the tsar. He tried to take advantage of any possibility to interest the European states in the decision of destiny of Ukraine. Anybody is more for Pylyp Orlyk has not made at that time if only the Ukrainian question became a particle of the all-European policy of first half ХVIII century.
"Pacts and the Constitution of the rights and liberties of the Army Zaporozhye", or so-called "Pylyp Orlyk's Constitution" which it has been proclaimed in day of its elections by the hetman, is the unique document which researchers not unreasonably name one of the first-ever democratic constitutions. Its main idea - full independence of Ukraine of Poland and Russia, and border with Poland were defined on the river Sluch, as for B. Khmelnitskiy. Except definition of territory of the Ukrainian state, this document defined the rights of all levels of population of Ukraine, independent position Zaporozhye from Poland and Russia. The hetman was appointed the head of the state, near to it should operate General syarshyna which limited to a certain measure the power of the hetman and regulated its relations with the people. Except the foreman to Rada representatives from each regiment should enter. The state treasure separated from hetman, strictly certain separate earths and means were allocated for deduction of the hetman. Colonels and сотники should be selected democratic - free voices of Cossacks or hundreds. The hetman was obliged to watch fair distribution and collecting of the state taxes which were paid Cossack sub-assistents, peasants, petty bourgeoises, merchant class.
The constitution of Ukraine on its acceptance recognised at once the governments of Sweden and Turkey. It and amazes today with the urgency and high legal level. Scientists and politicians nowadays not without the bases consider, that, having embodied ideas of its inspirer, hetman Ivan Mazepa, it as the state certificate of a republican direction for 80 years has outstripped ideas of the French revolution.
After Orlyks death there was a literary inheritance in the form of correspondence, versatile persons, speeches, panegyrics and "Діаріуша the traveller", that is a diary. They testify, that Phillip Orlik was rather educated person and had uncommon publicistic abilities. Almost its writing differs extreme artistry, baroque eloquence, free possession in several languages, the frequent reference to historical examples and mythology. Such, for example, his letters to Charles XII, запорожцев and hetman Ivan Skoropadskogo in which it describes misadventures of the people during the Tatar attacks.
Its correspondences Latin, French, Polish and then Ukrainian, or Russian, languages are separate page of Orlyks inheritance. Between persons with whom the hetman consisted in correspondence, there were known people, in particular count Flem_ng, the first minister of the Polish king of August II, golshynsky the prince, English ambasador, the Jerusalem patriarch, the Grand Visier, the Crimean khan, the hetman the Skoropadsky, Swedish king, the Zaporozhye Cossacks on the Turkish earths, etc. The constitution of 1710 - outstanding Ukrainian socially-polythic document in which have found bright display then ideals of the Ukrainian nation. In it contradictions between the European tradition and the newest ideals were reflected by then; contradictions which on the beginning of XVIII item tore apart Europe on irreconcilable enemy camp and with which there lived by then Ukraine. Because through its territory there passed invisible border between aspiration of our ancestors to freedom. Authors of the Constitution, P. Orlik and Cossack the foreman, aspired to connect fragments of the past in a single whole and to outline model of such society which would contain the main achievements of the nations. The stated ideas are a consequence almost of a millenium of political development of Ukraine, the certificate of high level of consciousness of the nations, level of its political culture and creative potential. Certainly, the form in which it is all it is stated, not позбавлна lacks (is more exact than features in due time), but same the first Ukrainian constitution.
The Constitution is made of the introduction (preamble) and articles which are united in 16 sections. Already in an introductory part by style means of baroque it is schematically stated "History of the Army of the Zaporozhye and all Russian people" which reaches times of establishment of predecessor Getmanshchiny - the Ktivan Rus, and also the reasons that Ukraine breaks off with Мoskovshchyna speak and passes under the Swedish patronage. The basic point of the Constitution - declaration of independence of Ukraine from Poland and Moscow. Consolidation of principles of activity of public authorities, General council convocation three times a year was the second point. The constitution limited the rights of the hetman in advantage starshinska aristocracy and precisely established, what profits the hetman which power was limited by Cossack parliament can use, doing from Ukraine the constitutional state. It, it is possible to tell, was a victory starshynska aristocracy over hetman absolute. On O. Ogloblina's expression, the Constitution became "the second defeat … hetman Mazepa after the Poltava accident which has struck the big blow of the hetman power".
By the important feature which distinguished it from usual hetman articles and did similar to late European constitutions, there was that it was made not between the hetman and the monarch (a protector of the Ukrainian state), and between the hetman and the Cossacks which spoke on behalf of persons of all Ukrainian people. However a word "constitution", that used in the name, yet had no such value as today, and, so, is an error to consider this document as the constitution in modern understanding.
Pylyp Orlik's constitution contained many interesting and progressive ideas, was up to standard of the best achievements of then legal thought. It considerably advances time, and also testifies about deep democratic principles department of Pylyp Orlyk and to he was what serious figure.
The constitution is made with the uttermost confidence of fast homecoming where it will have a validity for all Ukraine. Therefore at the moment of its conclusion, it represented the uttermost reality, instead of simply theoretical project which became later when returning to Ukraine of its composers became impossibl