Problems of race discrimination of the USA in the XX century

,%20during%20which%20Africans%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African>%20were%20enslaved%20and%20treated%20as%20property%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property>.%20Prior%20to%20the%20institution%20of%20slavery,%20early%20African%20and%20non-white%20immigrants%20to%20the%20Colonies%20had%20been%20regarded%20with%20equal%20status,%20serving%20as%20sharecroppers%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharecroppers>%20alongside%20whites.%20After%20the%20institution%20of%20slavery%20the%20status%20of%20Africans%20was%20stigmatized,%20and%20this%20stigma%20was%20the%20basis%20for%20the%20more%20virulent%20anti-African%20racism%20that%20persisted%20until%20the%20present.colonial%20America,%20before%20slavery%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_the_United_States>%20became%20completely%20based%20on%20racial%20lines,%20thousands%20of%20African%20slaves%20served%20European%20colonists,%20alongside%20other%20Europeans%20serving%20a%20term%20of%20indentured%20servitude%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indentured_servitude>.%20In%20some%20cases%20for%20African%20slaves,%20a%20term%20of%20service%20meant%20freedom%20and%20a%20land%20grant%20afterward,%20but%20these%20were%20rarely%20awarded,%20and%20few%20former%20slaves%20became%20landowners%20this%20way.%20In%20a%20precursor%20to%20the%20American%20Revolution,%20Nathaniel%20Bacon%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Bacon_(colonist)>%20led%20a%20revolt%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacon%27s_Rebellion>%20in%201676%20against%20the%20Governor%20of%20Virginia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia>%20and%20the%20system%20of%20exploitation%20he%20represented:%20exploitation%20of%20poorer%20colonists%20by%20the%20increasingly%20wealthy%20landowners%20where%20poorer%20people,%20regardless%20of%20skin%20color,%20fought%20side%20by%20side.%20However,%20Bacon%20died,%20probably%20of%20dysentery%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysentery>;%20hundreds%20of%20participants%20in%20the%20revolt%20were%20lured%20to%20disarm%20by%20a%20promised%20amnesty%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amnesty>;%20and%20the%20revolt%20lost%20steam.were%20primarily%20used%20for%20agricultural%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture>%20labor,%20notably%20in%20the%20production%20of%20cotton%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton>%20and%20tobacco%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco>.%20Black%20slavery%20in%20the%20Northeast%20was%20common%20until%20the%20early%2019th%20century,%20when%20many%20Northeastern%20states%20abolished%20slavery.%20Slaves%20were%20used%20as%20a%20labor%20force%20in%20agricultural%20production,%20shipyards,%20docks,%20and%20as%20domestic%20servants.%20In%20both%20regions,%20only%20the%20wealthiest%20Americans%20owned%20slaves.%20In%20contrast,%20poor%20whites%20recognized%20that%20slavery%20devalued%20their%20own%20labor.%20The%20social%20rift%20along%20color%20lines%20soon%20became%20ingrained%20in%20every%20aspect%20of%20colonial%20American%20culture.%20Approximately%20one%20Southern%20family%20in%20four%20held%20slaves%20prior%20to%20war.%20According%20to%20the%201860%20U.%20S.%20census,%20there%20were%20about%20385,000%20slave%20owners%20out%20of%20approximately%201.5%20million%20white%20families.the%20early%20part%20of%20the%2019th%20century,%20a%20variety%20of%20organizations%20were%20established%20advocating%20the%20movement%20of%20black%20people%20from%20the%20United%20States%20to%20locations%20where%20they%20would%20enjoy%20greater%20freedom;%20some%20endorsed%20colonization%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony>,%20while%20others%20advocated%20emigration%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emigration>.%20During%20the%201820s%20and%201830s%20the%20American%20Colonization%20Society%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Colonization_Society>%20(A.%20C.%20S.)%20was%20the%20primary%20vehicle%20for%20proposals%20to%20return%20black%20Americans%20to%20greater%20freedom%20and%20equality%20in%20Africa,%20and%20in%201821%20the%20A.%20C.%20S.%20established%20the%20colony%20of%20Liberia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberia>,%20assisting%20thousands%20of%20former%20African-American%20slaves%20and%20free%20black%20people%20(with%20legislated%20limits)%20to%20move%20there%20from%20the%20United%20States.%20The%20colonization%20effort%20resulted%20from%20a%20mixture%20of%20motives%20with%20its%20founder%20Henry%20Clay%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Clay>%20stating;%20"unconquerable%20prejudice%20resulting%20from%20their%20color,%20they%20never%20could%20amalgamate%20with%20the%20free%20whites%20of%20this%20country.%20It%20was%20desirable,%20therefore,%20as%20it%20respected%20them,%20and%20the%20residue%20of%20the%20population%20of%20the%20country,%20to%20drain%20them%20off".the%20Constitution%20had%20banned%20the%20importation%20of%20new%20African%20slaves%20in%201808,%20and%20in%201820%20slave%20trade%20was%20equated%20with%20piracy,%20punishable%20by%20death,%20the%20practice%20of%20chattel%20slavery%20still%20existed%20for%20the%20next%20half%20century.%20All%20slaves%20in%20only%20the%20areas%20of%20the%20Confederate%20States%20of%20America%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_of_America>%20that%20were%20not%20under%20direct%20control%20of%20the%20United%20States%20government%20were%20declared%20free%20by%20the%20Emancipation%20Proclamation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation>,%20which%20was%20issued%20on%20January%201,%201863%20by%20President%20Abraham%20Lincoln%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln>.%20It%20should%20be%20noted%20that%20the%20Emancipation%20Proclamation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation>%20did%20not%20apply%20to%20areas%20loyal%20to,%20or%20controlled%20by,%20the%20Union,%20thus%20the%20document%20only%20freed%20slaves%20where%20the%20Union%20still%20had%20not%20regained%20the%20legitimacy%20to%20do%20so.%20Slavery%20was%20not%20actually%20abolished%20in%20the%20United%20States%20until%20the%20passage%20of%20the%2013th%20Amendment%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution>%20which%20was%20declared%20ratified%20on%20December%206,%201865.4%20million%20black%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American>%20slaves%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery>%20were%20freed%20in%201865.%20Ninety-five%20percent%20of%20blacks%20lived%20in%20the%20South,%20comprising%20one%20third%20of%20the%20population%20there%20as%20opposed%20to%20one%20percent%20of%20the%20population%20of%20the%20North.%20Consequently,%20fears%20of%20eventual%20emancipation%20were%20much%20greater%20in%20the%20South%20than%20in%20the%20North.%20Based%20on%201860%20census%20figures,%208%%20of%20all%20white%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_American>%20males%20aged%2013%20to%2043%20died%20in%20the%20civil%20war,%20including%206%%20in%20the%20North%20and%20an%20extraordinary%2018%%20in%20the%20South.%20Despite%20this,%20post-emancipation%20America%20was%20not%20free%20from%20racism;%20discriminatory%20practices%20continued%20in%20the%20United%20States%20with%20the%20existence%20of%20Jim%20Crow%20laws%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Crow_laws>,%20educational%20disparities%20and%20widespread%20criminal%20acts%20against%20people%20of%20color.new%20century%20saw%20a%20hardening%20of%20institutionalized%20racism%20and%20legal%20discrimination%20against%20citizens%20of%20African%20descent%20in%20the%20United%20States.%20Although%20technically%20able%20to%20vote,%20poll%20taxes%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poll_tax>,%20acts%20of%20terror%20(often%20perpetuated%20by%20groups%20such%20as%20the%20Ku%20Klux%20Klan%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ku_Klux_Klan>,%20founded%20in%20the%20Reconstruction%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction_era_of_the_United_States>%20South),%20and%20discriminatory%20laws%20such%20as%20grandfather%20clauses%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandfather_clause>%20kept%20black%20Americans%20disenfranchised%20particularly%20in%20the%20South%20but%20also%20nationwide%20following%20the%20Hayes%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford_B._Hayes>%20election%20at%20the%20end%20of%20the%20Reconstruction%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction_era_of_the_United_States>%20era%20in%201877.%20In%20response%20to%20de%20jure%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_jure>%20racism,%20protest%20and%20lobbyist%20groups%20emerged,%20most%20notably,%20the%20NAACP%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NAACP>%20(National%20Association%20for%20the%20Advancement%20of%20Colored%20People)%20in%201909.time%20period%20is%20sometimes%20referred%20to%20as%20the%20nadir%20of%20American%20race%20relations%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nadir_of_American_race_relations>%20because%20racism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20was%20worse%20during%20this%20time%20than%20at%20any%20period%20before%20or%20since.%20Segregation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_segregation>,%20racial%20discrimination%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_discrimination>,%20and%20expressions%20of%20white%20supremacy%20all%20increased.%20So%20did%20anti-black%20violence,%20including%20lynchings%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynchings>%20and%20race%20riots%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_riot>.addition,%20racism%20which%20had%20been%20viewed%20primarily%20as%20a%20problem%20in%20the%20Southern%20states,%20burst%20onto%20the%20national%20consciousness%20following%20the%20Great%20Migration%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Migration_(African_American)>,%20the%20relocation%20of%20millions%20of%20African%20Americans%20from%20their%20roots%20in%20the%20Southern%20states%20to%20the%20industrial%20centers%20of%20the%20North%20after%20World%20War%20I,%20particularly%20in%20cities%20such%20as%20Boston%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston>,%20Chicago%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago>,%20and%20New%20York%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City>%20(Harlem%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem>).%20In%20northern%20cities,%20racial%20tensions%20exploded,%20most%20violently%20in%20Chicago,%20and%20lynchings%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynching_in_the_United_States>--mob-directed%20hangings,%20usually%20racially%20motivated-increased%20dramatically%20in%20the%201920s.%20As%20a%20member%20of%20the%20Princeton%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princeton_University>%20chapter%20of%20the%20NAACP,%20Albert%20Einstein%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein>%20corresponded%20with%20W.%20E.%20B.%20Du%20Bois%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._E._B._Du_Bois>,%20and%20in%201946%20Einstein%20called%20racism%20America's%20"worst%20disease".substantial%20gains%20were%20made%20in%20the%20succeeding%20decades%20through%20middle%20class%20advancement%20and%20public%20employment,%20black%20poverty%20and%20lack%20of%20education%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism_in_the_United_States>%20deepened%20in%20the%20context%20of%20de-industrialization.%20Prejudice,%20discrimination,%20and%20institutional%20racism%20(see%20below)%20continued%20to%20affect%20African%20Americans.1981%20to%201997,%20the%20United%20States%20Department%20of%20Agriculture%20discriminated%20against%20tens%20of%20thousands%20of%20African%20American%20farmers,%20denying%20loans%20provided%20to%20white%20farmers%20in%20similar%20circumstances.%20The%20discrimination%20was%20the%20subject%20of%20the%20Pigford%20v.%20Glickman%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pigford_v._Glickman>%20lawsuit%20brought%20by%20members%20of%20the%20National%20Black%20Farmers%20Association%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Black_Farmers_Association>,%20which%20resulted%20in%20two%20settlement%20agreements%20of%20$1.25%20billion%20in%201999%20and%20of%20$1.15%20billion%20in%202009.cite%20the%202008%20United%20States%20presidential%20election%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_United_States_presidential_election>%20as%20a%20step%20forward%20in%20race%20relations:%20White%20Americans%20played%20a%20role%20in%20electing%20Barack%20Obama%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama>,%20the%20country's%20first%20black%20president.%20However,%20according%20to%20exit%20polls,%20over%20sixty%20percent%20of%20white%20Americans%20voted%20for%20McCain.%20Racial%20divisions%20persisted%20throughout%20the%20election;%20wide%20margins%20of%20Black%20voters%20gave%20Obama%20an%20edge%20during%20the%20presidential%20primary,%20where%208%20out%20of%2010%20African-Americans%20voted%20for%20him%20in%20the%20primaries,%20and%20an%20MSNBC%20poll%20showed%20that%20race%20was%20a%20key%20factor%20in%20whether%20a%20candidate%20was%20perceived%20as%20being%20ready%20for%20office.%20In%20South%20Carolina,%20for%20instance,%20"Whites%20were%20far%20likelier%20to%20name%20Clinton%20than%20Obama%20as%20being%20most%20qualified%20to%20be%20commander%20in%20chief,%20likeliest%20to%20unite%20the%20country%20and%20most%20apt%20to%20capture%20the%20White%20House%20in%20November.%20Blacks%20named%20Obama%20over%20Clinton%20by%20even%20stronger%20margins%20-%20two%20-%20and%20three-to%20one%20-%20in%20all%20three%20areas.%20"the%20Pacific%20States%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_States>,%20racism%20was%20primarily%20directed%20against%20the%20resident%20Asian%20immigrants.%20Several%20immigration%20laws%20discriminated%20against%20the%20Asians,%20and%20at%20different%20points%20the%20ethnic%20Chinese%20or%20other%20groups%20were%20banned%20from%20entering%20the%20United%20States%20Nonwhites%20were%20prohibited%20from%20testifying%20against%20whites,%20a%20prohibition%20extended%20to%20the%20Chinese%20by%20People%20v.%20Hall%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People_v._Hall>.%20The%20Chinese%20were%20often%20subject%20to%20harder%20labor%20on%20the%20First%20Transcontinental%20Railroad%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Transcontinental_Railroad>%20and%20often%20performed%20the%20more%20dangerous%20tasks%20such%20as%20using%20dynamite%20to%20make%20pathways%20through%20the%20mountains.%20The%20San%20Francisco%20Vigilance%20Movement%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Francisco_Vigilance_Movement>,%20although%20ostensibly%20a%20response%20to%20crime%20and%20corruption,%20also%20systematically%20victimized%20Irish%20immigrants,%20and%20later%20this%20was%20transformed%20into%20mob%20violence%20against%20Chinese%20immigrants.%20Anti-Chinese%20sentiment%20was%20also%20rife%20in%20early%20Los%20Angeles,%20culminating%20in%20a%20notorious%201871%20riot%20in%20which%20a%20mob%20comprising%20every%20other%20nationality%20then%20resident%20in%20the%20city.the%20ensuing%20inquests%20and%20trials,%20all%20the%20perpetrators%20either%20were%20acquitted,%20or%20received%20only%20light%20punishments%20for%20lesser%20offenses,%20because%20the%20testimony%20of%20Chinese%20witnesses%20was%20either%20completely%20inadmissible,%20or%20else%20considered%20less%20credible%20than%20that%20of%20others.%20Legal%20discrimination%20of%20Asian%20minorities%20was%20furthered%20with%20the%20passages%20of%20the%20Chinese%20Exclusion%20Act%20of%201882%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Exclusion_Act_(United_States)>,%20which%20banned%20the%20entrance%20of%20virtually%20all%20ethnic%20Chinese%20immigrants%20into%20the%20United%20States%20until%201943.World%20War%20II,%20the%20United%20States%20created%20internment%20camps%20for%20Japanese%20American%20citizens%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_American_internment>%20in%20fear%20that%20they%20would%20be%20used%20as%20spies%20for%20the%20Japanese.%20Currently%20implemented%20immigration%20laws%20are%20still%20largely%20plagued%20with%20national%20origin-based%20quotas%20that%20is%20unfavorable%20to%20Asian%20countries%20due%20to%20large%20populations%20and%20historically%20low%20U.%20S.%20immigration%20rates.of%20Latin%20American%20ancestry%20(often%20categorized%20as%20"Hispanic%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hispanic>")%20come%20from%20a%20wide%20variety%20of%20racial%20and%20ethnic%20backgrounds.%20Latinos%20are%20not%20all%20distinguishable%20as%20a%20racial%20minority.the%20Mexican-American%20War%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican-American_War>%20(1846-1848),%20the%20U.%20S.%20annexed%20much%20of%20the%20current%20Southwestern%20region%20from%20Mexico.%20Mexicans%20residing%20in%20that%20territory%20found%20themselves%20subject%20to%20discrimination.%20It%20is%20estimated%20that%20at%20least%20597%20Mexicans%20were%20lynched%20between%201848%20and%201928%20(this%20is%20a%20conservative%20estimate%20due%20to%20lack%20of%20records%20in%20many%20reported%20lynchings).%20Mexicans%20were%20lynched%20at%20a%20rate%20of%2027.4%20per%20100,000%20of%20population%20between%201880%20and%201930.%20This%20statistic%20is%20second%20only%20to%20that%20of%20the%20African%20American%20community%20during%20that%20period,%20which%20suffered%20an%20average%20of%2037.1%20per%20100,000%20populations.%20Between%201848%20to%201879,%20Mexicans%20were%20lynched%20at%20an%20unprecedented%20rate%20of%20473%20per%20100,000%20of%20population.The%20Great%20Depression%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Depression>,%20the%20U.%20S.government%20sponsored%20a%20Mexican%20Repatriation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_Repatriation>%20program%20which%20was%20intended%20to%20encourage%20Mexican%20immigrants%20to%20voluntarily%20return%20to%20Mexico,%20however,%20many%20were%20forcibly%20removed%20against%20their%20will.%20In%20total,%20up%20to%20one%20million%20persons%20of%20Mexican%20ancestry%20were%20deported,%20approximately%2060%20percent%20those%20individuals%20were%20actually%20U.%20S.%20citizens.Zoot%20Suit%20Riots%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoot_Suit_Riots>%20were%20vivid%20incidents%20of%20racial%20violence%20against%20Latinos%20(e.%20g.%20Mexican-Americans%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican-Americans>)%20in%20Los%20Angeles%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles>%20in%201943.%20Naval%20servicemen%20stationed%20in%20a%20Latino%20neighborhood%20conflicted%20with%20youth%20in%20the%20dense%20neighborhood.%20Frequent%20confrontations%20between%20small%20groups%20and%20individuals%20had%20intensified%20into%20several%20days%20of%20non-stop%20rioting.%20Large%20mobs%20of%20servicemen%20would%20enter%20civilian%20quarters%20looking%20to%20attack%20Mexican%20American%20youths,%20some%20of%20whom%20were%20wearing%20zoot%20suits%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoot_suit>,%20a%20distinctive%20exaggerated%20fashion%20popular%20among%20that%20group.%20The%20disturbances%20continued%20unchecked,%20and%20even%20assisted,%20by%20the%20local%20police%20for%20several%20days%20before%20base%20commanders%20declared%20downtown%20Los%20Angeles%20and%20Mexican%20American%20neighborhoods%20off-limits%20to%20servicemen.public%20institutions,%20businesses,%20and%20homeowners%20associations%20had%20official%20policies%20to%20exclude%20Mexican%20Americans.%20School%20children%20of%20Mexican%20American%20descent%20were%20subject%20to%20racial%20segregation%20in%20the%20public%20school%20system.%20In%20many%20counties,%20Mexican%20Americans%20were%20excluded%20from%20serving%20as%20jurors%20in%20court%20cases,%20especially%20in%20those%20that%20involved%20a%20Mexican%20American%20defendant.%20In%20many%20areas%20across%20the%20Southwest,%20they%20lived%20in%20separate%20residential%20areas,%20due%20to%20laws%20and%20real%20estate%20company%20policies.the%201960s,%20Mexican%20American%20youth%20rallied%20behind%20civil%20rights%20causes%20and%20launched%20the%20Chicano%20Movement%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicano_Movement>.>Perhaps the most prominent and notable form of American racism (other than imperialism against Native Americans) began with the institution

Problems of race discrimination of the USA in the XX century

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Contain

 

Introduction

Chapter I. About the Race and Racism concept

I.1 Race discriminations on ethnicity backgrounds

1.a Racism against the Native Americans

1.b Racism against the African Americans

1.c Racism against the Asian Americans

1.d Racism against the Latinos

1.e Anti-Semitism and Anti-Islamic movements

I.2 The Globalization and Racism in Media Age

Chapter II. Racism reflections in literary works

II.1 African American writers about racism

II.2 Comparative analysis of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird" Harper Lee and story Going to Meet The Man" by James Baldwin

Conclusion

Bibliography

 

Introduction

 

My Diploma Paper will discuss the topic Problems of race discrimination of the USA in the 20th century. It is considered that the United States of America is a nation of immigrants, where rich and multifarious cultures, different ethnical origins inhabit this land and represent the American diversity. The country has faced and still facing many racial issues from the Civil Right Movement till today. Racism has always been the most discussed topics when it comes to any society problems.

The term Racism,%20violence%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence>,%20dislike%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dislike>,%20discrimination%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination>,%20or%20oppression%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppression>,%20the%20term%20can%20also%20have%20varying%20and%20contested%20definitions.%20"> includes both the belief in racial differences, as well as associated discrimination. Although the term racism usually denotes race-based prejudice <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prejudice>, violence <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence>, dislike <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dislike>, discrimination <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination>, or oppression <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppression>, the term can also have varying and contested definitions. ">Racialism <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racialism> is a related term, sometimes intended to avoid these negative meanings. According to the ">Oxford English Dictionary <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford_English_Dictionary>, racism is a belief or ideology that all members of each racial group possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as being either superior or inferior to another racial group or racial groups.

Racism%20which%20constitute%20race%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_(classification_of_human_beings)>,%20ethnicity,%20or%20nationality%20are%20a%20primary%20determinant%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essentialism>%20of%20human%20traits%20and%20capacities%20and%20that%20ethnic%20differences%20produce%20an%20inherent%20superiority%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superiority_complex>%20of%20a%20particular%20race.%20Racism's%20effects%20are%20called%20"racial%20discrimination."%20In%20the%20case%20of%20institutional%20racism%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_racism>,%20certain%20racial%20groups%20may%20be%20denied%20rights%20or%20benefits,%20or%20receive%20preferential%20treatment.discrimination%20typically%20points%20out%20taxonomic%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy>%20differences%20between%20different%20groups%20of%20people,%20although%20anyone%20may%20be%20discriminated%20against%20on%20an%20ethnic%20or%20cultural%20basis,%20independently%20of%20their%20somatic%20differences.%20According%20to%20the%20United%20Nations%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations>%20conventions,%20there%20is%20no%20distinction%20between%20the%20term%20"> is the belief that the genetic factors <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics> which constitute race <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_(classification_of_human_beings)>, ethnicity, or nationality are a primary determinant <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essentialism> of human traits and capacities and that ethnic differences produce an inherent superiority <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superiority_complex> of a particular race. Racism's effects are called "racial discrimination." In the case of institutional racism <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_racism>, certain racial groups may be denied rights or benefits, or receive preferential treatment.discrimination typically points out taxonomic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy> differences between different groups of people, although anyone may be discriminated against on an ethnic or cultural basis, independently of their somatic differences. According to the United Nations <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations> conventions, there is no distinction between the term racial discrimination and %20discrimination">ethnicity <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_group> discrimination.

The topicality of my diploma paper deals with the racism and wrong prejudices on other races or ethnicities. In the past racism has been manifested openly and still is the major contributing factor in promoting terrorism.

The aim of my Diploma Paper is to discover the reasons and the consequences of racism problems in American society. To this day, racism exists because people still believe that power and supremacy should be distributed to only whites.

The object of this diploma paper is the idea of race and cultural identity that are important for all representatives of different nations.

The subject of the investigation in my diploma Paper is the books written by American writers focused on the racial factors influence in American society.novelty of my diploma paper is the investigation about this taboo subject in todays society, but yet remains a problem that has been present since the colonial era. It is a dilemma, while Americans treat the other people judging by their skin color and nationality; the affects of racism in past generations versus todays generation.

The theoretical value of my diploma paper is to understand this systematic and institutionalized mistreatment of one group of people by another on racial heritage. The theoretical sources can be used in The History of the United States, American Culture, American Literature, Modern Problems of America and other disciplines concerned on studies about America.

The practical value lies in the connection between the history, literature and the culture. American Diversity is not simply about cultural representations or identities, but also about the power dynamics and the ways in which African Americans are affected by institutional racism - the kind of racism written into laws, policies, and traditions. Still, the issues regarding to race discriminations have been observed in some cultures not openly though disguisingly.

The Structure of the Diploma paper contains Introduction, two chapters, Conclusion and Bibliography list.describes the content of my diploma work and guides the discussion topics, also tells the topicality, aim, tasks, subject, novelty, theoretical value, and practical value of the diploma paper.

race discrimination racism writer

Chapter One provides the information about racism concept, the stereotypes regarding to the skin color or nationality towards the Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Latino Americans living in the United States, also touches upon the race discrimination issues in globalization age.

Chapter Two is focused on the connection of history, literature, culture of ethnicities and their reflections in American literature. As an example were taken the famous book To Kill a Mockingbird" by H. Lee, the stories Going to meet a Man" J. Baldwin, Desirees Baby by K. Chopin.

Conclusion part gives the results of my investigation, observation and comparison done over this important topic.Reference List guides the names of books and resources, on-line materials that are applied in completing this paper.

Chapter I. About the Race and Racism concept

 

Racism can destroy the personality and scar the soul. (Martin Luther King)/

The idea of race was invented to magnify the differences between people of European origin in the U. S. and those of African descent whose ancestors had been brought against their will to function as slaves in the American South. (Britannica Concise Encyclopedia)to the Oxford English Dictionary, racism is a belief or ideology that all members of each racial group possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as being either superior or inferior to another racial group or racial groups, that a persons social and moral traits are predetermined by his or her inborn biological characteristics. It may be defined as the hatred of one person by another - or the belief that another person is less than human - because of skin color, language, customs, and place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person.term Racism includes both the belief in racial differences, as well as associated discrimination. Although the term racism usually denotes race-based prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination, or oppression, the term can also have varying and contested definitions. Racialism is a related term, sometimes intended to avoid these negative meanings. Racism's

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