Positive and negative values of conformism

Social psychology for several decades studying the problem of conformism. In the mid 30 s of XX century. American Psychologist

Positive and negative values of conformism

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Contents

 

1. Conformism, conformal behavior conformality

. The study conformism

. Positive and negative valuesof sources used

conformism adaptation power subordination

 

1. Conformism, conformal behavior conformality

in its public nature is active, particularly on their interests. But on the requirements of others dealing with activity much more difficult. Under the influence of society, state, traditions, public opinion, authority of elders, social group or its leader, under direct or indirect pressure from other people's personality can control its activity, its direct channel to the requirements of those entities or public institutions to adapt some of their interests the interests of others, to become compliant, ductility and even humble, that is passive to take the interests of other life position. This form of expression of individual positions, there is passivity, nekrytychnist, pliability, prystosovnytstvo about the impact on her environment, called conformism.of group most often sold through conformism as a phenomenon of group pressure. Conformism is continually in small groups to work in groups of interest in families and affects the individual life settings and change behavior.the level of everyday consciousness, this concept is positive, negative and neutral value.(Latin conformis - like, respectively) - passive acceptance prystosovnytske group standards of behavior, the indisputable recognition of existing orders, rules and regulations, unconditional worship of the authorities.interpretation covers various conformism, though outwardly similar, phenomena: - the lack of a person's own views, beliefs, character weakness, prystosovnytstvo - uniformity in behavior, with the consent of the individual views, norms, values of most people who surround him - the result of pressure group norms on individual who as a result of this pressure begins to act, think, feel the same way as other members of the group.can express:

) prystosovnytske attitude to other requirements, of course trustworthy, strong personality (personality-authors of conformism and Packaging);

) the same treatment to the requirements of large, medium or small social group to which it belongs (intragroup conformity);

) the same treatment to the requirements of society, its institutions, the dominant social groups, government (public or social conformity). Often to refer to different manifestations of the phenomenon of conformism use the term "conformal behavior" and "conformism". Because conformity is broader socio-psychological phenomenon, in most case studies referred Conformal behavior and conformism. The contents of these concepts points to a purely psychological characteristics of positions regarding the individual positions of the group: he accepts or rejects the group recognized norms, standards, values, properties.(Latin conformis - like) behavior - human action, which is manifested in its compliance of real or perceived pressure groups to change the settings and actions according to position the community to which she is involved.response of the individual to group pressure can be verbal and behavioral. For social psychology is important, or changing opinion of an individual because of what he saw something in (or made changes in his cognitive structure), or outside it only shows changes, and actually own opinion has not changed.- a tendency of an individual subject to the opinion of the majority group, real or imagined group pressure.shows where conflict of opinion between the person and the position of the group. Tag it is to change attitudes and behavior of an individual under the terms of the majority. By essentially conformality can be external (individual only outside opinion demonstrates conquering group, continuing to do it internally resistance) and internal (real conversion of individual installations of the primary position of the individual in favor of the group, most assimilation of his thoughts). Depending on the type of person group is the negativism - resistance to group pressure to demonstrate behaviors or opinions that contradict the position of the group. Often the concept of "negativism" is used in the sense that the concept and "nonconformism. Sometimes it separates content, describing the negativism as demonstration of behavior or thought contrary to the views of the majority, regardless of whether this majority is right, and nonconformism - as a demonstration of thought or behavior, based on their experience, regardless of the opinions or behavior of most group . As the antithesis conformism use the term "nonconformnist" (Latin for non - not, conformis - like, respectively) - complete disagreement, violation of any norms and values of the group. Tag it considered the objection claims, expectations, rules, orders society. However, interpretation nonconformism not known as an alternative, and one of the manifestations of conformism. Measure of human caused conformism and depends, of significance for her attitude surrounding - how important it is for her, the lower level of conformism;, the authority of those who express the various views in the group - the higher their status and authority for the group, the higher conformality members of the group;, conformism depends on the number of people expressing one or another position of their unanimity;- fourthly, the measure is determined conformism age and gender rights - women in general more conformal than men, and children - than older adults.fact, comfort - something controversial, primarily because accommodating the individual does not always indicate real change in his perception.are two variants of individual behavior:

That is, when opinion is changing as a result of individual belief in something;

Motivated - if he shows changes.are three levels of conformal human behavior:

submission (impact group has an external nature, duration conformal behavior is limited to a particular situation);

Identification (exists in two forms, one can completely or partially assimilate themselves to other group members or participants of interaction expected from each specific behavior, trying to justify these mutual expectations);

internalization (related to the value of the person) in this situation, human behavior is relatively independent of external influences, because the views or opinions of others joined in the value system of the person.

Conformism is also considered as a function of three types of influence., an information conformality of the group, where opinions of the group is considered adequate reflection of reality., normative conformism of the group when a person is interested to estimate the group.

Thirdly, normative conformism of the experimenter. It arises when the interests of the guinea focused primarily on assessment of the no group, and experimenter.

 

. The study conformism

 

Social psychology for several decades studying the problem of conformism. In the mid 30' s of XX century. American Psychologist Muzafer Sheriff investigated in vitro the formation of group norms and their impact on people using so-called avtokinetychnyy effect (optical illusion of movement of the fixed points of light in a dark visual field). The result of this and similar experiments have led to the following conclusions: - The individual uncertainty by matching and comparing their own views on others, inclined to agree, as a rule, with the majority to adapt to it - a common reference system, formed in the presence of others continues to influence the views and opinions of the individual, even without this source of influence. M. Cherif not actually researched conformism. The objective was to study the process of forming social norms in a laboratory, and clarify various aspects naviyuvanosti rights. In the early 50' s of XX century. American researcher Solomon Ash drew attention to the problem of group pressure, using a method "reasonably groups. A considerable intensification of research and debate about the nature of conformism as a social phenomenon that took place in the coming decades, social psychology has enriched many concrete conclusions. In particular it was found that a high degree of conformism is the result of underdeveloped intellect, low self and others. It was then concluded that a person can be a conformist or a nonconformist. So there are two options for treatment of personality to the group opinion: or disagreement, alienation, or full acceptance of it. Also alleged that the degree of conformism depends on the situation, the composition and structure of the group. However, these factors have not been elucidated (presumably because of the nature of laboratory groups that are not allowed to consider the significance for the individual group thought). Negative role played by abstraction and participating in the experiment that revealed the lack of information on their individual characteristics, social characteristics (values, beliefs, etc.). And most model variations of behavior was somewhat simplistic, since it takes into account only two types: conformal and demonstrate the non. In fact, real life in a group may be associated with the third type of behavior, based on a conscious recognition of individual codes and standards groups. Despite these shortcomings, Asha S. technique was used in subsequent experiments, as many scientists consider it a model of scientific creativity, unequivocally recognizing its humanistic orientation. Further investigation konkretyzuvaly factors underlying conformal behavior, influencing it and determine the level of conformism. This - a conflict (real, imaginary) between the individual and group; pressure (influence) groups through evaluation, offensive jokes, etc. Most unanimity, soli

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