Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
Department of Foreign Philology
Parable thinking in W. FAULNERs novel “A FABLE”
by Yana Kolomiets
student of the Department
of Foreign Philology
5 E/Sp group
Kharkiv - 2010
PART I. W.FAULKNER AND HIS CREATIVE ACTIVITIES
- Development of a writer
- W. Faulkners aesthetic views
PART II. FEATURES OF A PARABLE
2.1 Parable as a genre
2.2 Form and content of parables
PART III. W. FAULKNERS “A FABLE” AS AN PIECE OF PARABLE THINKING
3.1 General characteristic of the novel
3.2 Allegoric character of the novel
3.3 Christian symbolism in the novel
3.4 The figure of Christ in the novel
PART IV. Methodological reccomendations FOR TEACHING FAULKNERS CREATIVE WRITING
American literature, to which Faulkner belongs, is comparatively new. Yet among many writers that it includes, there are those whose works present special interest for literary criticism. William Faulkner is, undoubtedly, one of the most significant and outstanding representatives of American literature. More than simply a renowned Mississippi writer, the Nobel Prize-winning novelist and short story writer is acclaimed throughout the world as one of the twentieth centurys greatest writers. Among his greatest works are the novels all set in the same small Southern county - novels that include Absalom, Absalom!, As I Lay Dying, Light in August, and above all, A Fable- that would one day be recognized among the greatest novels ever written by an American.
A Fable occupies a curious position among Faulkner's works. Written during the period of his greatest acclaim, the first major novel he produced after receiving the Nobel Prize in 1950, it appeared at a time when critics were undoubtedly most disposed to heap praise upon him for the slimmest of reasons. A Fable was awarded the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award in 1955, but was considered a failure by practically all the reviewers and many of the influential critics; few commentators have since found reasons to alter their opinions.
Since Faulkners literary career his works had been studied well and many critic works were published. But there still there are some “white spots” in these studies, and the novel A Fable is one of them. Actually it is not studied properly. In critical reviews not much attention is paid to parable thinking in this novel that is very important for direct comprehension of the philosophical ideas and concepts presented here.
Thus, the topicality of the research consists in the fact that at present parable as a genre attracts more attention of the researchers as a strong aesthetic and philosophical phenomenon.
Undertaking our research, we formulated our aim as discovery and the analysis of the parable thinking in Faulkners novel.
The aim determines the concrete tasks of the diploma paper:
- to consider Faulkners life and its connection with his creative activities, as it is necessary for the understanding of the novel;
- to highlight the main features of parable, its peculiarities and the differences between parable and novel;
- to single out the parable thinking in the novel.
The object of the research is W. Faulkners writings and parable as a literary genre.
The subject of the research is the novel A Fable and features of parable thinking in it.
Realization of the tasks has been accomplished with the help of the following methods:
- historical-sociological method which means historical and sociological conditions of the writing;
- biographical method of the research to consider Faulkners life and its connection with his creative works;
- descriptive method which involved gathering information about the writers life and creative activities, examining it deeply and thoroughly and for analyzing the text proper;
- method of text interpretation to study the novel properly, to single out the parable thinking in it.
Scientific novelty consists in the fact that the phenomenon of parable thinking in this novel has been studied for the first time.
Practical value of the research is that the results can be used during the lessons of English literature at school or seminars on World literature at higher educational establishments.
PART I. W. FAULKNER AND HIS CREATIVE ACTIVITIES
1.1 Development of a writer
William Cuthbert Faulkner was born on September 25, 1897, in New Albany, Mississippi, the first of four sons born to Murry and Maud Butler Falkner. He was named after his great-grandfather, William Clark Falkner, the Old Colonel, who had been killed eight years earlier in a duel with his former business partner in the streets of Ripley, Mississippi. A lawyer, politician, planter, businessman, Civil War colonel, railroad financier, and finally, a best-selling writer of the novel The White Rose of Memphis, the Old Colonel, even in death, loomed as a larger-than-life model of personal and professional success for his male descendants.
A few days before Williams fifth birthday, the Falkners moved to Oxford, Mississippi, at the urging of Murrys father, John Wesley Thompson Falkner. Called the Young Colonel out of homage to his father rather than to actual military service, the younger Falkner had abruptly decided to sell the railroad begun by his father. Disappointed that he would not inherit the railroad, Murry took a series of jobs in Oxford, most of them with the help of his father. The elder Falkner, meanwhile, founded the First National Bank of Oxford in 1910.
When a young man William demonstrated artistic talent, drawing and writing poetry, but around the sixth grade he began to grow increasingly bored with his studies. His earliest literary efforts were romantic, conscientiously modeled on English poets such as Burns, Thomson, Housman, and Swinburne. While still in his youth, he also made the acquaintance of two individuals who would play an important role in his future: a childhood sweetheart, Estelle Oldham, and a literary mentor, Phil Stone.
Williams other close acquaintance from this period arose from their mutual interest in poetry. When Stone read the young poets work, he immediately recognized Williams talent and set out to give Faulkner encouragement, advice and models for study [21, p.202-214].
Earlier, Faulkner had tried to join the U.S. Army Air Force, but he had been turned down because of his height. In his RAF application, he lied about numerous facts, including his birth date and birthplace, in an attempt to pass himself as British. He also spelled his name “Faulkner”, believing it looked more British, and in meeting with RAF officials he affected a British accent.
Though he had seen no combat in his wartime military service, upon returning to Oxford in December 1918, he allowed others to believe he had. He told many stories of his adventures in the RAF, most of which were highly exaggerated or patently untrue, including injuries that had left him in constant pain and with a silver plate in his head. His brief service in the RAF would also serve him in his written fiction, particularly in his first published novel, Soldiers Pay, in 1926.
Back in Oxford, he first engaged in a footloose life, basking in the temporary glory of a war veteran. In 1919, he enrolled at the University of Mississippi in Oxford under a special provision for war veterans, even though he had never graduated from high school. In August, his first published poem, LApres-Midi dun Faune, appeared in The New Republic. While a student at Ole Miss, he published poems and short stories in the campus newspaper, the Mississippian, and submitted artwork for the university yearbook. In the fall of 1920, Faulkner helped to found a dramatic club on campus called The Marionettes, for which he wrote a one-act play titled The Marionettes but which was never staged. After three semesters of study at Ole Miss, he dropped out in November 1920. Over the next few years, Faulkner wrote reviews, poems, and prose pieces for The Mississippian and had several odd jobs. At the recommendation of Stark Young, a novelist in Oxford, in 1921 he took a job in New York City as an assistant in a bookstore managed by Elizabeth Prall . His most notorious job during this period was his stint as postmaster in the university post office from the spring of 1922 to October 31, 1924. By all accounts, he was a terrible postmaster, spending much of his time reading or playing cards. When a postal inspector came to investigate, he agreed to resign. During this period, he also served as a scoutmaster for the Oxford Boy Scout troop, but he was asked to resign for “moral reasons” (probably drinking).
In 1924, his friend Phil Stone secured the publication of a volume of Faulkners poetry The Marble Faun by the Four Seas Company. It was published in Decemb