- What does marketing strategy planning mean?
- There are two defining parts of a marketing strategy: the target market and the marketing mix. How would you characterize them?
- Why do they play a key role in the outcome of a firms success?
- What components does marketing mix include and how can they influence the products position on the market?
- What is the difference between definitions “marketing concept” and “marketing strategy”?
- What channel of distribution do you think is more effective? Why?
foreign exchange money in a foreign currency currency the system of money used in a country rate a fixed charge, payment or value risk the possibility of meeting danger or of suffering harm or loss to distinguish to recognise the difference between people or things bond a certificate issued by a government or a company acknowledging that money has been lent to it and will be paid back with interest. portfolio a set of investments owned by a person, bank, etc. to convert to change from one form or use to another equity the value of the shares issued by a company; the ordinary stocks and shares that carry no fixed interest adverse not favourable, contrary, opposing, harmful
THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND CAPITAL MARKETS
The foreign exchange market is a market for converting the currency of one country into that of another country. An exchange rate is simply the rate at which one currency is converted into another. Without the foreign exchange market international trade and international investment on the scale that we see today would be impossible; companies would have to resort to barter. The foreign exchange market is the lubricant that enables companies based in countries that use different currencies to trade with each other.
The rate at which one currency is converted into another typically changes over time. Currency fluctuations can make seemingly profitable trade and investment deals unprofitable, and vice versa.
In addition to altering the value of trade deals and foreign investments, currency movements can also open or shut export opportunities and alter the attractiveness of imports. While the existence of foreign exchange markets is a necessary precondition for large-scale international trade and investment, the movement of exchange rates over time introduces many risks into international trade and investment. Some of these risks can be insured against by using instruments offered by the foreign exchange market, such as the forward exchange contracts
Thus, the foreign exchange market serves two main functions. The first is to convert the currency of one country into the currency of another. The second is to provide some insurance against foreign exchange risk, by which we mean the adverse consequences of unpredictable changes in exchange rates. To explain how the market performs this function, we must first distinguish among spot exchange rates, forward exchange rates, and currency swaps.
SPOT EXCHANGE RATES
When two parties agree to exchange currency and execute the deal immediately, the transaction is referred to as a spot exchange. Exchange rates governing such "on the spot" trades are referred to as spot exchange rates. The spot exchange rate is the rate at which a foreign exchange dealer converts one currency into another currency \// on a particular day.
FORWARD EXCHANGE RATES
The fact that spot exchange rates change daily as determined by the relative demand and supply for different currencies can be problematic for an international business. To avoid this risk, the U.S. importer might want to engage in a forward exchange. A forward exchange occurs when two parties agree to exchange currency and execute the deal at some specific date in the future. Exchange rates governing such future transactions are referred to as forward exchange rates. For most major currencies, forward exchange rates are quoted for 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days into the future.
A currency swap is the simultaneous purchase and sale of a given amount of foreign exchange for two different value dates. Swaps are transacted between international businesses and their banks, between banks and between governments when it's desirable to move out of one currency into another for a limited period without incurring foreign exchange risk. A common kind of swap is spot against forward.
THE INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MARKET
A capital market brings together those who want to invest money and those who want to borrow money. Those who want to invest money are corporations with surplus cash, individuals, and non bank financial institutions (e.g., pension funds, insurance companies). Those who want to borrow money are individuals, companies, and governments. In between these two groups are the market makers. Market makers are the financial service companies that connect investors and borrowers, either directly or indirectly. They include commercial banks and investment banks.
Commercial banks perform an indirect connection function. They take deposit from corporations and individuals and pay them a rate of interest in return. They then loan that money to borrowers at a higher rate of interest, making a profit from the difference in interest rates. Investment banks perform a direct connection function. They bring investors and borrowers together and charge commissions for doing so.
A Eurocurrency is any currency banked outside its country of origin. Eurodollars which , account for about two-thirds of all Eurocurrencies, are dollars banked outside or the United States. Other important Eurocurrencies include the Euro, the Euro-yen, and the Euro-pound. The term Eurocurrency actually a misnomer, since a Eurocurrency can be created anywhere in the persistent Euro-prefix reflects the European origin of the market. The Eurocurrency market is significant because it is an important, relative source of funds for international businesses. From small beginnings, this is mushroomed.
THE INTERNATIONAL EQUITY MARKET
There is no international equity market in the sense that there are international currency and bond markets. Rather many countries have their own domestic equity markets in which corporate stock is traded. The largest of these domestic equity markets are to be found in the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany. Although each domestic equity market is still dominated by investors who are citizens of that country and companies incorporated in that country, developments are internationalising the world equity market. Investors are investing heavily in foreign equity markets as a means of diversifying their portfolios.
THE INTERNATIONAL BOND MARKET
Bonds are an important means of financing for many companies. The most common kind of bond is a fixed-rate bond. The investor who purchases a fixed-rate bond receives a fixed set of cash payoffs. Each year until the bond matures, the investor gets an interest payment and then at maturity he gets back the face value of the bond.
International bonds are of two types: foreign bonds and Eurobonds. Foreign bonds are sold outside the borrower's country and are denominated in the currency of the country in which they are issued.
Eurobonds are normally underwritten by an international syndicate of banks and placed in countries other than the one in whose currency the bond is denominated For example, a bond may be issued by a German corporation, denominated in U.S dollars, and sold to investors outside the United States by an international syndicate of banks. Eurobonds are routinely issued by multinational corporations, large domestic corporations, sovereign governments, and international institutions, they are usually offered simultaneously in several national capital markets, but not in the capital market of the country, nor to residents of the country, in whose currency they are denominated. Eurobonds account for the lion's share of international bond issues.
- How would you explain the