5)The translation of eponyms
Eponym, as P.Newmark thinks, is any word derived from a proper name (therefore including toponyms), are a growth industry in Romance languages and a more modest one in the English media. When derived from peoples names such words (Audenesque, Keynesian, Laurenthian, Hallidayan, Joycean, and Leavisite) tend to rise and fall depending on the popularity or vogue of their referent and ease of composition. When they refer directly to the person, they are translated without difficulty, but if they refer to the referents ideas or qualities, the translator may have to add these. In Italian, Thatcherism can sometimes (temporarily) be naturalised as Il Thatcherismo without comment. The Fosbury flop, a technical term for a method of high-jumping, can be transferred for specialist and succinctly defined for non-specialists. When derived from objects, eponyms are usually brand names, and can be transferred only when they are equally well known and accepted in the TL (e.g. nylon, but Durex is an adhesive tape in Australian English). Such generalized eponyms as Parkinsons Law (work, personnel, etc. expands to fill the time, space etc. allotted to it), Murphys or Sods Law (if something can go wrong, it will) have to be reduced to sense. Brand name eponyms normally have to be translated by denotative terms (ball point).general the translator should curb the use of brand name eponyms. New eponyms deriving from geographical names (the tasteless bikini has not been repeated) appear to be rare - most commonly they originate from the products (wines, cheeses, sausages etc.) of the relevant area - in translation the generic term is added until the product is well enough known. Many geographical terms have connotations, the most recent for English being perhaps Crichel Down (bureaucratic obstruction) with further details depending on context. Since such eponyms are also metonyms and therefore lose their local habitation (Midsummer Nights Dream) they also lose their names and are translated by their sense.Newmark proposes to divide eponyms into three categories, those derived from persons, objects and places.
Persons. In the first category, eponyms denoting objects usually derive from their inventors or discoverers; in translation, the main difficulty is that they may have an alternative name (e.g. Humboldt Current or Peru current), the authenticity of the discoverer may be implicitly disputed (Arnolds fold - valvule de Krause; Densons disease - maladie de Grancher), or more commonly, replaced by a technical term (Rontgenographie - radiography; Hutchinsons angioma - angiome serpigineux). In this category, there is a tendency for eponyms to be gradually replaced by descriptive terms (Davy lamp - Grubensicherheitslampe).biggest growth-point in eponyms in many European languages is the conversion of prominent persons names to adjectives (-ist) and abstract nouns (-ism) denoting either allegiance to or influence of the person, or a conspicuous quality or idea associated with them. This has always been common for French statesmen and writers (not artists or composers) where phrases like une preciosite giralducienne (like Giraudouxs) have a certain vogue. It extends now to statesmen whose name lends itself readily to suffixation - often the eponym declines with the personalitys fame (e.g. Bennite). Thus we have Thatcherism, Scargillism, Livingstonian - Reagan has to make do with Reaganomics (i.e., economic policy) - others are hampered by their names, e.g. Kinnock. Sometimes, mainly in French (gaullien, gaulliste), occasionally in English (Marxian, Marxist) a distinction is made between value-free and value-loaded eponyms through the suffixes -ian and -ist respectively. Sometimes one eponym, say Shakespearean, Churchillian, has many potential meanings which can be reduced to one only by considering the collocation and the context.main problem in translating eponyms derived from persons is whether the transferred word will be understood; thus the noun or adjective Leavisite is useful in English to summarize certain principles of literary criticism, but it would mean little in most TLs unless these were stated and, usually, related to F.R.Leavis. Such connotations (e.g., for Shavian, wit, irony, social criticism) need recording. In other cases, e.g., Quisling, Casanova, Judas, where not much else is known of the character, the eponym has a single connotative meaning and is often transferred. In such cases, if the readership is unlikely to understand an eponym, footnotes are usually unnecessary, but you have to decide whether it is worth transferring the name as well as the sense, depending on its cultural interest and its likelihood of recurrence or permanence in the TL. In some cases, where the interest of the proper name is purely local and probably temporary, only the contextual sense is translated; in others (Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe), the eponym is naturalized, though the connotation may differ somewhat between the source and target language.
Objects. In the second category, that of object, we are firstly discussing brand names which tend to monopolise their referent first in the country of their origin, then internationally, e.g. aspirin, Formica, Walkman, which in translation require additional descriptive terms only if the brand name is now known to the readership. Secondly, you have to consciously resist subliminal publicity for manufacturers of products such as Pernod, Frigidaire, Durex (adhesive tape in Australia), Tipp-Ex, Velcro, Jiffy bag, bic, biro, Tesa, sellotape (two pairs of cultural equivalents), Scotch (tape and whisky), translating them by a brief descriptive term (which is not always easy) rather than transferring them. Often it is too late. You have to accept TL standard terms, whether they are eponyms or recognised translations; jargon you must fight, either by eliminating it or by slimming it down.
Geographical names. Thirdly, geographical terms are used as eponyms when they have obvious connotations: firstly the towns and villages of Nazi horrors (Belsen, Dachau, Veldrome, Drancy, Terezen, and Oradour), which you should transfer and, where necessary, gloss, since this is basic education. Secondly, beware of idioms such as meet your Waterloo - faire naufrage; il y aura du bruit a Landerneau - its just tittle-tattle; from here to Timbuktu - dici jusqua Landerneau. Lastly you should note the increasing metonymic practice, mainly in the media, or referring to governments by the name of their respective capitals or locations and institutions or ministers by their residences or streets (Whitehall - the British government; the Pentagon - US military leadership; Fleet Street - the British press).
Its a well-known hypothesis that there is no such thing as a brand new word; if a word does not derive from various morphemes then it is more or less phonaesthetic or sunaesthetic. All sounds or phonemes are phonaesthetic, have some kind of meaning. Nevertheless, the etymology of name words, in particular, dialect words, is not known and can hardly be related to meaningful sounds.best known exception to the hypothesis is the internationalism quark, coined by James Joyce in Finnegans Wake (the word exists in German with another sense), a fundamental particle in physics., for instance the computer term byte, sometimes spelt bite, is also an internationalism, the origin of the y being obscure. Both these words have phonaesthetic qualities - quark is humorously related to quark., the main new coinages are brand or trade names (Bistro, Bacardi, Schweppes, Persil, Oxo) and these are usually transferred unless the product is marketed in the TL culture under another name; or the proper name may be replaced by a functional or generic term, if the trade name has no cultural or identifying significance. Thus Revlon may be transferred by a selection of various components (Revlon, lipstick, fashionable American).principle, in fiction, any kind of neologism should be recreated; if it is a derived word it should be replaced by the same or equivalent morphemes; if it is also phonaesthetic, it should be given phonemes producing analogous sound effects. For this reason, in principle, the neologisms in Finnegans Wake (riverrun, from over the short sea, to wielderfight his penisolate war) must be re-created systematically and ingeniously, always however, with the principle of equivalent naturalness in mind, whether relating to morphology (roots and inflexion) or sound (alliteration, onomatopoeia, assonance).
neologism semantic sociolinguistic mathematical
.1 SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION BASED IN NEOLOGISMS.
)The notion of a developed language
Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of human language is the range of purposes it served, the variety of different things that people make language do for them. Casual interaction in home and family, instruction of children, activities of production and distribution like building and marketing and more specialized functions such as those of religion, literature, law and government - all these may readily be covered by one person on one days talk.can define a developed language as one that is used freely in all the functions that language serves in the society in question. Correspondingly an