Neologism in modern English

Where there is an accepted collocation in the SL, the translator must find and use its equivalent in the TL,

Neologism in modern English

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appropriate equivalent. The verbs in these collocations merely have an operative function (they mean do) and no particularized meaning since the action is expressed in the noun. Some verbal nouns have a small range of collocates; others, like discourse, Lob, Dients, have one obvious collocate (pronouncer, spenden, leisten).) Determiner plus adjective plus noun. The appropriate adjective has to be found for the noun. There is a much wider range of choices than in (a), and the force of this category of collocation is usually only established by contrast with another language. Thus a large apple but une grosse pomme; a tall man but un home grand; un grand home but a great man; un beau garcon but a good looking man; a pretty girl but not (usually) a pretty boy. Some nouns have one particularly suitable adjective in an extensive variety of areas, particularly for physical qualities (e.g. woman: dark, slim, middle-aged, short, young) which, for other objects, would require different adjectives, whilst other nouns (e.g. criticism) have a narrow sheaf of adjectives for each segment of a variety of areas (approfondi/grundlich; anodine/nichtssagend).) Adverb plus adjective. The most suitable adverb must be looked for. These collocations tend to clichй (e.g. immensely important). The collocation is much rarer in Romance languages, where its equivalent transposition is adjective plus adjectival noun, e.g. dune immense importance. Note however: vachement dur, damn hard or bloody hard. This collocation, which is more restricted and less frequent (therefore far less important) than (a) and (b) is much at the mercy of fashion.) Verb plus adverb or adjective. This is much smaller category: the adverb or adjective must be looked for. Examples: work hard, feel well, shine brightly, and smell sweet.) Subject plus verb. There are two groups: first, the noun and verb may mutually attract each other: the dog barks, the cat purrs, the bell rings, and teeth chatter. In some cases, particularly when referring to animals, the verb usually has no other subject. In the second group, there is merely a fairly high expectation that a particular verb will follow the subject: the door creaks, le clocher pointe, les champs se deroulent, and here the right verb must be looked for. In French, some of these verbs are often found as past participles or in adjectival clauses qualifying their subjects (used as etoffement with low semantic content), and then they require no translation in English: la maison qui se drese sur la colline, the house on the hill.) Count noun plus of plus mass noun. This restricted collocation consists of a term denoting a unit of quantity and the word for the substance it quantifies. The appropriate unit must be looked for in the TL, e.g. a loaf of bread, a cake of soap, a pinch of salt, a particle of dust, etc, if it exists.) Collective noun plus count noun. The collective noun has to be discovered: e.g. a bunch of keys, a flock of geese or sheep, a pack of cards or hounds.and less easily categorized collocations include nominalizations (in particular, nouns premodified by one or more nouns), introducing the name of an object (or unit of quantity) by a term for its size, composition, purpose, origin, destination, etc., which is now rapidly superseding the noun plus of plus noun collocation; the whole range of phrasal verbs, and various items of a sequence including activity/agent/instrument/object/attribute/source/place, etc.: e.g. bake/baker/oven/bread/fresh,new,stale,musty/flour,yeast/bakery.and semantically, clichйs are a subgroup of collocations in that one of their collocates has diminished in value or is almost redundant, as often in grinding to a halt, filthy lucre, etc., and the translator may be entitled to replace a clichй with a less common collocation, if it clarified the content without distorting it.collocations may be based on well-established hierarchies such as kinship (fathers and sons), colours (emerald is a bright green), scientific taxonomies and institutional hierarchies where the elements of the culture for each language often have their own distinct linguistic likeness (Abbild), although the extralinguistic object may be the same. Alternatively they may consist of the various synonyms and antonyms that permeate all languages.may be classified under three heads:)Objects which complement each other to form a set (land, sea, air), or a graded series (ratings, petty officers, officers).)Qualities (adjectives or adjectival nouns) which are contrary, which may have middle term (e.g. interested/disinterested/uninterested), or are contradictory. Contradictory polar terms are shown formally, i.e. through affixes: perfect/imperfect, loyal/disloyal. (Suffixes have much stronger force than prefixes: cf. faithless/unfaithful). Contrary polar terms are usually shown lexically: hot/cold, young/old, faithful/treacherous. In a text, such collocations usually appear as alternatives, e.g. hard or soft; clear, obscure or vague.)Actions (verbs or verbal nouns). In two-term collocations, the second term is converse or reciprocal: attack/defend; action/reaction. In three-term collocations, the second and third terms represent positive and negative responses respectively: offer/accept/refuse, besiege/hold out/surrender/. Actions may also complement each other as in (a); walk/run, sleep/wake.are two types of synonym collocation. The main type is the inclusive collocation which include (a) the hierarchies of genus/species/subspecies, etc., and may indicate the degree of generality (or particularity) of any lexical item, and with in the appropriate category (Oberbegriffe or super ordinates): e.g. the brass in the orchestra; pump or grease-gun; equity on the market. Fleche is a generic term for spire, and a specific term for fleche (slender spire perforated with windows); (b) synecdoche, where part and whole are sometimes used indiscriminately with the same reference (e.g. chariot/prote-outil, strings/violins); (c) metonymy, where Bonn and the West German government, the City and British bankers may again be interchanged. The second type of synonym collocation is usually an old idiom such as with might and main and by hook or by crook - which is likely to have a Germanic (auf Biegen oder Brechen) but not a Romance (coute que coute) one-to-one equivalent.are the lexical (not grammatical) tramlines of language. Where a translator finds current and equally common corresponding collocation in source and TL texts, it is mandatory to use them; they are among the invariant components of translation. They may be factual or extralinguistic, denoting institutional terms (e.g. le President Republique) as well as linguistic. A translator must be conversant with them not only to follow them but also to know when to break them (going off the tramlines) when they are broken in the SL text.collocations (noun compounds or adjective plus noun) are particularly common in the social sciences and in computer language. Thus, lead time, sexual harassment, claw back, cold-calling, Walkman (brand name for personal stereo), acid rain, norm reference testing, rate-capping, jetlag, lateral thinking, narrow money, graceful degradation, hash total.above represents varying problems. The computer terms are given their recognised translation - if they do not exist, you have to transfer them (if they appear important) and then add a functional-descriptive term - you have not the authority to devise your own neologism.

Sexual harassment is a universal concept at least in any culture where there is both greater sexual freedom and a powerful womens movement. For a German it will come out as Sexualschikane;

Lead time - a term for the time between design and production or between ordering and delivery of a product, has at present to be translated in context;

Claw back (retrieval of tax benefits) may not last;

Narrow money (money held predominantly for spending), is contrasted with broad money (for spending and/or as a store of value).brief discussion shows incidentally the difficulty of translating English collocations which appear arbitrarily to juxtapose nouns with verb-nouns because they indicate the two most significant meaning components, but have varied and sometimes mysterious case relations. Languages cannot convert verbs to nouns but, in the case of the Romance languages at least, suppress prepositions in such ruthless way, cannot imitate this procedure. For this reason, the English collocations are difficult to translate succinctly and an acceptable term emerges only when the referent becomes as important (usually as a universal, but occasionally as a feature of the SL culture) that more or less lengthy functional-descriptive term will no longer do.linguistics, a collocation is typically defined as the habitual co occurrence of individual lexical items. For the translator, for whom the collocation is the most important contextual factor collocation, in as far as it usefully affects translation, is considerably narrower; it consists of lexical items that enter mainly into high-frequency grammatical structures. Here are some examples if this in English and German languages.

. Adjective + noun. heavy labour - schwere Arbeit. economic situation - Konjunkturlage

. Noun +noun (i.e. double-noun compound). nerve cell - Nervenzelle. government securities - Staatspapiere. eye ball - Augapfel

. Verb + object, which are normally a noun that denotes an action, as in read a paper.. pay a visit - einen Besuch machen. score (win) a victory - einen Sieg erzielen. read an (academic) paper - ein Referant halten. attend a lecture - eine Vorlesung horen or besuchenare various degrees of collocability. Some words such as bandy and rancid may only have one material collocate (legs, butter) but figuratively they open up more choice (appearance, taste). They are always linked with the concept of naturalness and usage, and

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