Abbreviations have always been a common type of pseudo-neologisms, probably more common in French and German that in English. Example: Uni, Philo, sympa, Huma, fac, fab, video; they are normalised (i.e. translated unabbreviated), unless there is a recognized equivalent (e.g. bus, metro, plus science-technical terms)., one of the most noticeable features of present-day English linguistic life, would for ma major part of any super dictionary. Often thought to be an exclusively modern habit, the fashion for abbreviations can be traced back over 150 years. In 1839, a writer in the New York Evening Tatler comments on what he calls the initial language… a species of spoken shorthand, which is getting into very general use among loafers and gentlemen of the fancy, besides Editors, to whom it saves much trouble in writing…. He was referring to OK (all correct), PDQ (pretty damn quick) - two which have lasted - GT (gone to Texas), LL (liver loafers), and many other forms introduced, often with a humorous or satirical intent, by society people.fashionable use of abbreviation - a kind of society slang - comes and goes in waves, though it is never totally absent. In the present century, however, it has been eclipsed by the emergence of abbreviations in science, technology, and other special fields, such as cricket, baseball, drug trafficking, the armed forces, and the media. The reasons for using abbreviated forms are obvious enough. One is the desire for linguistic economy - the same motivation which makes us want to criticize someone who uses two words where one will do. Succinctness and precision are highly valued, and abbreviations can contribute greatly to a concise style. They also help to convey a sense of social identity: to use an abbreviated form is to be in the know - part of the social group to which the abbreviation belongs. Computer buffs the world over will be recognized by their fluent talk of ROM and RAM, of DOS and WYSIWYG. You are no buff if you are unable to use such forms, or need to look them up (respectively, read-only memory, random-access memory, disk operating system, what you see is what you get). It would only irritate computer-literate colleagues and waste time or space (and thus money) if a computer-literate person pedantically expanded every abbreviated form. And the same applies to those abbreviations which have entered everyday speech. It would be strange indeed to hear someone routinely expanding BBC, NATO, USA, AIDS, and all the other common abbreviations of contemporary English. Indeed, sometimes (as with radar and AIDS), the unabbreviated form may be so specialized that it is unknown to most people - a point not missed by the compilers of quiz games, who regularly catch people out with a well-known (sic) abbreviation. As a test, try UNESCO and UNICEF, AAA, SAM and GI (context: military), or DDT and TNT (context: chemistry).are 6 types of abbreviation: initialisms, acronyms, clipping, blends, awkward cases, facetious forms.- items which are spoken as individual letters, such as BBC, DJ, MP, EEC, e.g., and USA; also called alphabetizes. The vast majority of abbreviations fall into this category. Not all use only the first letters of the constituent words: PhD, for example, uses the first two letters of the word philosophy and GHQ and TV take a letter from the middle of the word.- initialisms which are pronounced as single words, such as NATO, laser, UNESCO, and SALT (talks). Such items would never have periods separating the letters - a contrast with initialisms, where punctuation is often present (especially in older styles of English). However, some linguists do not recognize a sharp distinction between acronyms and initialisms, but use the former term for both.- a part of word which serves for the whole, such as ad and phone. These examples illustrate the two chief types: the first part is kept (the commoner type, as in demo, exam, pub, Gill), and the last part is kept (as in bus, plane). Sometimes a middle part is kept, as in fridge and flue. There are also several clippings which retain material from more than one part of the word, such as maths (UK), gents, and specs. Turps is a curiosity, in the way it adds an -s. Several clipped forms also show adaptation, such as fries (from French fried potatoes), Betty (from Elizabeth) and Bill (from William).- a word which is made up of the shortened forms of two other words, such as brunch (breakfast+lunch), heliport (helicopter+airport), smog (smoke+fog), and Eurovision (European+television). Scientific terms frequently make use of blending (as in the case of bionic), as do brand names (a device which cleaned your teeth while you used the phone might be called Teledent) and fashionable neologisms.lexical blend, as its name suggests, takes two lexemes which overlap in form, and welds them together to make one. Enough of each lexeme is usually retained so that the elements are recognizable. Here are some longstanding examples, and a few novelties from recent publications.+ hotel = motel+ editorial = advertorial+ Tunnel = Chunnel+ Cambridge = Oxbridge+ Harvard = Yarvard+ language = slanguage+ estimate = guesstimate+ aerial = squaerial+ cartoons = toytoons+ analyser = breathalyzer+ influenza = affluenza+ commercials = informercials+ condominium = dockominiummost cases, the second element is the one which controls the meaning of the whole. So, brunch is a kind of lunch, not a kind of breakfast - which is why the lexemes are brunch and not say lunkfast. Similarly, a toytoon is a kind of cartoon (one which generates a series of shop toys), not a kind of toy.seems to have increased in popularity in the 1980s, being increasingly used in commercial and advertising contexts. Products are sportsational, swimsational, and sexsational. TV provides dramacons, docufantasies, and rockumentaries. The forms are felt to be eye-catching and exciting; but how many of them will still be around in a decade remains an open question.cases - abbreviations which do not fall clearly into the above four categories. Some forms can be used either as initialisms or acronyms (UFO - U F O or you-foe). Some mix these types in the one word (CDROM, pronounced see-dee-rom). Some can form part of a lager word, using affixes (ex-JP, pro-BBC, ICBMs). Some are used only in writing (Mr, St- always pronounced in full in speech).forms: TGIF - Thank God Its Friday, CMG - Call Me God (properly, Companion of St Michael and St George), GCMG - God Calls Me God (properly, Grand Cross of St Michael and St George), and above al AAAAAA - Association for the Alleviation of Asinine Abbreviations and Absurd Acronyms (actually listed in the Gale Dictionary).
Where there is an accepted collocation in the SL, the translator must find and use its equivalent in the TL, if it exists. A collocation consists basically of two or three lexical (sometimes called full, descriptive, substantial) words, usually linked by grammatical (empty, functional, relational) words, e.g. a mental illness. The collocates within a collocation define and delimit each other by eliminating at least some of their other possible meanings; the defining may be mutual and equally balanced, but more often it is closer for one collocate than for the other. Thus to pay attention, since it reduces the number of senses in which pay can be used to one. The word attention is not so radically affected, but it excludes attention in the sense of care, solicitude. To buy a hat is not a collocation, since it does not appreciably delimit the sense of buy or hat. However, collocations shade off into other grammatically linked word-groups without a sharp division.collocation is the element of system in the lexis of a language. It may be syntagmatic or horizontal, therefore consisting of a common structure; or paradigmatic or vertical, consisting of words belonging to the same semantic field which may substitute for each other or be semantic opposites. These become collocations only when they are arranged syntagmatically.collocations can be divided into seven main groups:) Verb plus verbal noun. Examples: pay attention, suffer a defeat, run a meeting, make a speech. The verb is the collocate for which the translator must find the