(b)Tell me, tell me, how could she cam through all her fellows, the nectar she was, the diveline? Linking one and knocking the next, tapping a flank and tipping a jetty and palling in and petering out and clyding by on her east way. Wai-whou was the first that ever burst? Someone he was, whoever they were, in a tactic attack or in single combat. Tinker, tailor, soldier, Paul Pry or polishman. Thats the thing I always want to know.
(c)Tell me, tell me, how cam she camlin trough all her fellows, the neckar she was, the diveline? Linking one and knocking the next, tapting a flank and tipting a jutty and palling in and pietaring out and clyding by on her eastway. Waiwhou was the first thurever burst? Someone he was, whuebra they were, in a tactic attack or in single combat. Tinker, tilar, souldrer, salor, Pieman peace or Polistamann. Thats the thing want to know.
(d)Tell me, tell me, how cam she camlin trough all her fellows, the neckar she was, the diveline? Casting her perils before our swains from Fonte-in-Monte to Tidingtown and from Tidingtown tilhavet. Linking one and knocking the next, tapting a flank and tipting a jutty and palling in and pietaring out and clyding by on her eastway. Waiwhou was the first thurever burst? Someone he was, whuebra they were, in a tactic attack or in single combat. Tinker, tilar, souldrer, salor, Pieman Peace or Polistamann. Thats the thing Im elways on edge to esk.good way of developing an understanding of how Joyces neologisms wok is to try to imitate them, or parody them.suggests a game to fill long winter evenings. In response to an instruction to punbaptise the names of the months from the viewpoint of a confirmed drunkard, he gives us:this means that a lot of writers use literary neologizing in their novels and stories.
A lot of writers and poets used Neologistic compounds. Some Liverpool poets as Adrian Henry (b.1932), Roger McGough (b.1937), and Brian Patten (b.1946) can show Neologistic compounds in their poems.lexicoining is but one of the several techniques described in earlier pages available to any author who wishes to neologize. For example, there may be a novel use of affixes:
by owl-light in the half-way housegentleman lay graveward with his furies;
(Dylan Thomas, Altarwise by Owl-light, 1935-6)an unusual word-class conversion:slipped thro the frenchwindowsarminarmed across the lawn
(Roger McGough, The Fish, 1967)
But innovative compounds are particularly widespread, and deserve special space.staid set of compound lexemes which was illustrated before does not even begin to capture the exuberant inventiveness which can be seen in English literature from its earliest days. Old English was dominated by its creative compounding, as seen in such forms as hronrad sea (literally, whale-road), and, much later, Shakespeare made considerable use of Neologistic compounds: pity-pleading eyes and oak-cleaving thunderbolts. Sometimes several items are joined in a compound-like way:
base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited-pound, filthy woosted-stocking, a Lilly-livered, action-taking,, glasse-gazing super-seruiceableRogue
(King Lear, II.ii.15)
is not a great remove from here to the Joycean juxtapositions of Ulysses, 1922:
broadshouldered deepchested stronglimbed frankeyedfreely freckled shaggy-bearded widemouthedlongheaded deepvoiced bareknedhairylegged ruddyfaced sinewyarmed hero.
to the lexical creations of Gerard Manely Hopkins, mixing hyphenated and solid forms:
This darksome burn, horseback brown,rollrock highroad roaring down…windpuff-bonnet of fawn-frothand twindles over the broth…
course, simply to print a series of words without spaces between them is hardly to create a compound, except at a most superficial level. A real compound acts as a grammatical unit, has a unified stress pattern, and has a meaning which is in some way different from the sum of its parts. Many literary compounds do none of this, and have a solely graphic appeal, as in this later line from Roger McGoughs poem:you took of your other gloveis perhaps a phonetic implication in such forms, suggestive of a difference in rhythm or speed of utterance when read aloud; but there is no grammatical or semantic change involved. A different kind of point is being made: to break graphic convention for its own sake reinforces the iconoclastic, irreverent tone with which the Liverpool Poets of the 1960s came to be identified.
Orwellian compound speak
times 3.12.83 reporting bb dayorder doubleplusungood refs unpersons rewrite fullwise upsub antefilingNewspeak message, sent for re-editing to Winston Smith, in George Orwells Nineteen Eight-Four, is given the following Oldspeak (standard English) translation:reporting of Big Brothers Order for the Day in The Times of December 3rd 1983 is extremely unsatisfactory and makes references to Non-existing persons. Rewrite it in full and submit your draft to higher Authority before filing.uses three kinds of words: the A vocabulary consists of everyday items, B vocabulary is ideological; and the C vocabulary contains technical terms. The B vocabulary comprises only compound words. Orwell describes it as a sort of verbal short-hand, often packing whole ranges of ideas into a few syllables. Its aim is to impose a desirable mental attitude upon the person using them. Examples include: doublethink, goodthink, oldthink, crimethink, oldspeak, speakwrite, thoughtcrime, sexcrime, prolefeed, dayorder, blackwhite, duckspeak.forms could be inflected in the usual way. For example, goodthink (orthodoxy on Oldspeak), could generate goodthinking, goodthinkful, goodthinkwise, goodthinker, and goodthinked. (There are no irregular forms in Newspeak). Other terms in Newspeak are not so much compounds as blends, involving fragments of either or both of the constituent lexemes: Pornsec (Pornography Section), Ficdep (Fiction Department), Recdep (Records department), and Thinkpol (Thought Police).novel gives the impression that there are hundreds of such forms. Indeed, one of the characters (Syme) is engaged in the enormous task of compiling the Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak Dictionary. In fact, there are only a few dozen Newspeak terms mentioned in the novel and its Appendix, though several of them are used repeatedly.
1.3 THE TYPES OF NEOLOGISMS
)The old words with new senses
Firstly lets take the existing words with new senses. These do not normally refer to new objects or processes and therefore are rarely technological. However, creneau, which started as a metaphor as creneau de vente (therefore is a pseudo-neologism) can normally be translated technically as market outlet or informally as range of demand for a particular type of product depending on the three types: 1) expert, 2) educated generalist, who may require extra explanations of the topic of the SL culture, 3) the ignorant, who may need explanations at various levels. All these types belong to the type of readership.term gay appears to have been deliberately used by homosexual to emphasise their normality. It is no longer slang-translations such as schwul or homo will not do. Possibly when homosexuality loses al its negative connotations, there will be no need for this sense of gay but it is likely to stay - it has gone into French and German as gay. You cannot go back in language - a colloquial term is not usually replaced by a formal term. To sum up, old words with new senses tend to be non-cultural and non-technical. They are usually translated either by a word that already exist in the TL, or by brief functional or descriptive term.collocations with new senses are a translators trap: usually these are normal descriptive terms which suddenly become technical terms; their meaning sometimes hides innocently behind a more general or figurative meaning.
: in English in German
unsocial hours Studen auberhalb derArbeitzeit
real-time (computers) Echtzeit
collocations with new senses may be cultural or non-cultural. If the referent (concept or object) exists in the TL, there is usually a recognised translation or trough-translation. If the concept does not exist or the TL speakers are not yet aware of it, an economical descriptive equivalent has to be given. There is also the possibility of devising a new collocation in inverted commas, which can later be slyly withdrawn.also have to be aware of the reverse tendency, which is to use technical collocations such as critical mass or specific gravity an a generalized sense - this often leads to jargon which can be corrected in the translation of informative texts.
The great majority of neologisms are words derived by analogy from ancient Greek (increasingly) and Latin morphemes usually with suffixes as -ismo, -ismus, -ija etc., naturalised in the appropriate language. In some countries (e.g. pre-War Germany, Arabic-speaking countries) this process has been preferred. E.g. television - Fernsehen. However, now that this word-forming procedure is employed mainly to designate (non-cultural) scientific and technological rather than cultural institutional terms, the advance of these internationalisms is wide-spread. Normally, they have naturalised suffices. Many are listed in Babel appears to be the main non-European language that imports them., this does not mean that the translator can apply the process automatically. For example: Bionomics has given way to ecology, and ergono