"Defence Secretary Roy Mason yesterday gave a rather frosty reception in the Commons to the latest proposal for a common defence policy for all EEC countries." (Morning Star)as vocabulary is, it is not so much the words and phrases used in brief news items that distinguish them from other forms of newspaper writing. The vocabulary groups listed above are also commonly found in headlines and newspaper articles. The basic peculiarities of news items lie in their syntactical structure.the reporter is obliged to be brief, he naturally tries to cram all his facts into the space allotted. This tendency predetermines the peculiar composition of brief news items and the syntactical structure ^,of the sentences. The size of brief news items varies from one sentence to several (short) paragraphs. And generally, the shorter the news item, |\ the more complex its syntactical structure.following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as their grammatical parameters.) Complex sentences with a developed system of clauses, e. g.
"Mr. Boyd-Carpenter, Chief Secretary to the Treasury and Paymaster-General (Kingston-upon-Thames), said he had been asked what was meant by the statement in the Speech that the position of war pensioners and those receiving national insurance benefits would be kept under close review." (The Times)
"There are indications that BO AC may withdraw - threats of all-out dismissals for pilots who restrict flying hours, a spokesman for the British Airline Pilots' association said yesterday," (Morning Star)) Verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) and verbal noun constructions, e.g.
"Mr. Nobusuke Kishi, the former Prime Minister of Japan, has sought to set an example to the faction-ridden Governing Liberal Democratic Party by announcing the disbanding of his own faction numbering 47 of the total of 295 conservative members of the Lower House of the Diet." (The Times)) Syntactical complexes, especially the nominative with the infinitive. These constructions are largely used to avoid mentioning the source of information or to shun responsibility for the facts reported, e. g.
"The condition of Lord Samuel, aged 92, was said last night to be a 'little better.'" (The Guardian)
"A petrol bomb is believed to have been exploded against the grave of Cecil Rhodes in the Matopos." (The Times)) Attributive noun groups are another powerful means of effecting brevity in news items, e.g. 'heart swap patient' (Morning Star), 'the national income and expenditure figures' (The Times), 'Labour backbench decision' (Morning Star), 'Mr. Wilson's HMS fearless package deal' (Morning Star).) Specific word-order. Newspaper tradition, coupled with the rigid rules of sentence structure in English, has greatly affected the word-order of brief news items. The word-order in one-sentence news paragraphs and in what are called "leads" (the initial sentences in longer news items) is more or less fixed. Journalistic practice has developed what is called the "five-w-and-h-pattern rule" (who-what-why-how-where-when)and for a long time strictly adhered to it. In terms of grammar this fixed sentence structure may be expressed in the following manner: Subject-Predicate (+Object)-Adverbial modifier of reason (manner)- Adverbial modifier..of place-4Adverbial modifier of time, e.g.
"A neighbour's peep through a letter box led to the finding of a woman dead from gas and two others semiconscious in a block of council flats in Eccles New Road, Salford, Lanes., yesterday." (The Guardian)has been repeatedly claimed by the authors of manuals of journalistic writing that the "five-w-arid4i" structure was the only right pattern of sentence structure to use in news reports. Facts, however, disprove this contention. Statistics show that there are approximately as many cases in which the traditional word-order is violated as those in which it is observed. It is now obvious that the newspaper has developed new sentence patterns not typical of other styles. This observation refers, firstly, to the position of the adverbial-modifier of definite time. Compare another pattern typical of brief news sentence structure:
"Derec Heath, 43, yesterday left Falmouth for the third time in his attempt to cross the Atlantic in a 12ft dinghy." (Morning Star)
"Brighton council yesterday approved а Ј 22,500 scheme to have parking meters operating in the centre of the town by March." (The Times)and some other unconventional sentence patterns have become a common practice with brief news writers.are some other, though less marked, tendencies in news item writing of modifying well-established grammatical norms. Mention should be made of occasional disregard for the sequence of tenses rule, e.g.
"The committee -which was investigating the working of the 1969 Children and Young Persons Act - said that some school children in remand centres are getting only two hours lessons a day." (Morning Star)is ordinarily looked upon as a violation of grammar rules in any other kind of writing appears to bЈ a functional peculiarity of newspaper style.
1.2 THE APPEARANCE OF NEOLOGISMS DURING THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE
the 16th century there was a flood of new publications in English, prompted by a renewed interest in the classical languages and literatures, and in the rapidly developing fields of science, medicine, and the arts. This period, from the time of Caxton until around 1650, was later to be called the Renaissance, and it included the Reformation, the discoveries of Copernicum, and the European exploration of Africa and the Americas. The effects of these fresh perspectives on the English languages were immediate, far-reaching and controversial.focus of interest was vocabulary. There were no words in the language to talk accurately about the new concepts, techniques, and inventions which were coming from Europe, and so writers began to borrow them. Most of the words which entered the language at the time were taken from Latin, with a good number from Greek, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. Then, as the period of word-wide exploration got under way, words came into English from over 50 other languages, including several indigenous languages of North America, Africa, and Asia. Some words came into English directly; others came by way of an intermediate language. Many came indirectly from Latin or Italian via French.writers, such as Thomas Elyot, went out of their way to find new words, in order (as they saw it) to enrich the language. They saw their role as enabling the new learning to be brought within the reach of the English public-whether this was access to the old classical texts, or to the new fields of science, technology, and medicine. There were many translations of classical works during the 16th century, and thousand of Latin and Greek terms were introduced, as translators searched for an English equivalent and could not find one. Some, indeed, felt that English was in any case not an appropriate vehicle for the expression of the new learning. English, in this view, did not compare well with the tried and tested standards of Latin or Greek, especially in such fields as theology or medicine. It was a language fit for the street, but not for the library.as now, the influx of foreign vocabulary attracted bitter criticism, and people leaped to the languages defense. Purists opposed the new inkhorn terms, condemning them for obscurity and for interfering with the development of native English vocabulary. Some writers (notably, the poet Edmund Spenser) attempted to revive obsolete English words instead - what were sometimes called Chaucerisms - and to make us of little-known words from English dialects. Algate (always), sicker (certainly), and yblent (confused) are examples. The scholar John Cheke used English equivalents for classical terms whenever he could, such as crossed for crucified and gainrising for resurrection.increase in foreign borrowings is the most distinctive linguistic sign of the Renaissance in English. Purist opinions did not, in the event, stem the influx of new words - nor have it ever, in the history of this language.
Some Renaissance loan words in English
From Latin and Greek, adapt, agile, alienate, allusion, anachronism, anonymous, appropriate, assassinate, atmosphere, autograph, benefit, capsule, catastrophe, chaos, climax, conspicuous, contradictory, crisis, criterion, critic, delirium, denunciation, disability, disrespect, emancipate, emphasis, encyclopedia, enthusiasm, epilepsy, eradicate, exact, exaggerate, excavate, excursion, exist, expectation, expensive, explain, external, extinguish, fact, glottis, habitual, halo, harass, idiosyncrasy, immaturity, impersonal, inclemency, jocular, larynx, lexicon, lunar, malignant, monopoly, monosyllable, necessitate, obstruction, pancreas, parasite, parenthesis, pathetic, pneumonia, relaxation, relevant, scheme, skeleton, soda, species, system, tactics, temperature, tendon, thermometer, tibia, tonic, transcribe, ulna, utopian, vacuum, virus.or via French, anatomy, battery, bayonet, bigot, bizarre, chocolate, colonel, comrade, detail, docility, duel, entrance, equip, explore, grotesque, invite, moustache, muscle, naturalized, passport, pioneer, probability, progress, shock, surpass, ticket, tomato, vase, vogue, volunteer.or via Italian, balcony, ballot, cameo, carnival, concerto, cupola, design, fuse, giraffe, grotto, lottery, macaroni, opera, piazza, portico, rocket, solo, sonata, sonnet, soprano, stanza, stucco, trill, violin, volcanoor via Spanish and Portuguese
Alligator, anchovy, apricot, armada, banana, barricade, bravado, cannibal, canoe, cockroach, cocoa, corral,