Neologism in modern English

Where there is an accepted collocation in the SL, the translator must find and use its equivalent in the TL,

Neologism in modern English

Дипломная работа

Иностранные языки

Другие дипломы по предмету

Иностранные языки

Сдать работу со 100% гаранией
: heel - the back part of foot); to screen - to classify;

) Borrowing: telecast, telestar (Greek), sputnik.also deal with metaphor. The translation is concerned with certain particular problems: metaphor, synonyms; proper names, institution and cultural terms, grammatical, lexical and referential ambiguity, clishй, quotations; cultural focus, overlap and distance, idiolect; neologisms; jargon, the four categories of key terms.can be categorized as:)formal - completely new words. These are rare - the locus classicus is the 17th century word for gas (from chaos) - in the semantic translation. If they are original, they should be transcribed, and recreated, if recently coined. Brand names should be transcribed or given their TL brand names;)eponyms - recently based on proper names, including inventors and names of firms and towns. (For the purposes of translation theory at any rate, I am extending the meaning and area of eponym to include all instances of transferred use of proper names, e.g. macadamise, Stalingrad, academic. The secondary meaning of antonomasia (use of a proper name to express a general idea) is also included within my definition of eponym. The translator often has to be careful not to transcribe these (boycotter, but not limoger) and in particular beware of the Western nations chauvinism about their medical vocabulary (Roentgen, Graves, Hodgkin, Wilson etc).;)derived - formed with production prefixes (i.e. de-, mis-, non-, pre-, pro-) and suffixes (e.g. -ism, -ize, -ization), e.g. misdefine, non-event, encyclopaedism, taxon, paraclinique, etc. If such neologisms are transparently comprehensible, the translator can cautiously naturalise them, assuming that Latin and Greek roots are acceptable in the TL - particularly in technological texts;)new collocations, e.g. urban guerrilla, unsocial hours, route fleurie, ouvrier spйcialisй (skilled worker). Normally it is unwise to attempt a loan or through translation unless the translator is officially authorized to do so, otherwise he has to normalise. Is scenic route acceptable for route fleurie?)phrasal (nouns or verbs) - trade-off, zero-in, etc. The translator has to normalise these in the TL usually by translating into two or three words;)acronyms (now a translation label for any combination of initial letters or syllables, and apparently the most productive element in European languages). International acronyms are usually translated (e.g. EEC, CEE, EG) - national acronyms are usually retained with, if necessary, a translation of their function, rather than their meaning, e.g. CNAA-CNAA, degree-awarding body for higher education colleges (non-university) in the United Kingdom; EDF, the French Electricity Authority, ZUP, areas for priority housing development. Words derived from acronyms have to be normalised (e.g. cйgйtiste, member of CGT, the French TUC, onusien (related to UNO); smicard, minimum wage earner;)blends (portmanteau words), i.e. combinations of two words, highly productive. These either become internationalisms for at least European languages if they have Latin/Greek roots (e.g. meritocracy, tachygraph, eurocrat, bionics, many medical terms) or they are borrowed (e.g. sovkhoz, sovnarkom, sovpreme) or adopted (e.g. motel). If no recognized equivalent exists they should be translated (e.g. Abkьft, mania for abbreviations, ecotage, environment cult, but workaholic ergomane (?)). Opaque blends such as ruckus should where possible have both components (ruction, rumpus) translated;)semantic, old words with new meanings, e.g. sophisticated, viable, credible, gay, base (F), Base (G). These should be normalised (i.e. translated by a normal word) but base should perhaps replace the patronizing rank and file and the excruciating grassroots, as an old word with a new meaning (cf. chalk face);)abbreviations (shortened form of word). These are commoner in French and German than English: e.g. Uni, Philo, Beeb, vibes, bac, Huma; they are normalised (i.e. translated unabbreviated), unless there is a recognized equivalent (e.g. bus, metro, plus sci-tech terms)..Newmark proposes to review twelve types of neologisms and discuss the translation of particular instances by way of the appropriate contextual factors. P.Newmark is a professor and he has many years of experience in teaching translation techniques. In the below frame you can see types, contextual factors and translation procedures for the translation of neologisms.

Neologisms. These are very common in newspaper vocabulary. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society, in science and technology. Hence, neologisms make their way into the language of the newspaper very easily and often even spring up on newspaper pages, e.g. lunik, a splash-down (the act of bringing a spacecraft to a water surface), a teach-in (a form of campaigning through heated political discussion), backlash or white backlash (a violent reaction of American racists to the Negroes' struggle for civil rights), frontlash (a vigorous antiracist movement), stop-go policies (contradictory, indecisive and inefficient policies).above-listed peculiarities of brief news items are the basic vocabulary parameters of English newspaper style.vocabulary of brief news items is for the most part devoid of emotional colouring. Some papers, however, especially those classed among "mass" or "popular" papers, tend to introduce emotionally coloured lexical units into essentially matter-of-fact news stories, e.g.

"Health Minister Kenneth Robinson made this shock announcement yesterday in the Commons." (Daily Mirror)

"Technicians at the space base here are now working flat out to prepare GeAiini 6 for next Monday's blast-off." (Daily Mail)

"Defense Secretary Roy Mason yesterday gave a rather frosty reception in the Commons to the latest proposal for a common defense policy for all EEC countries." (Morning Star)as vocabulary is, it is not so much the words and phrases used in brief news items that distinguish them from other forms of newspaper writing. The vocabulary groups listed above are also commonly found in headlines and newspaper articles. The basic peculiarities of news items lie in their syntactical structure.the reporter is obliged to be brief, he naturally tries to cram all his facts into the space allotted. This tendency predetermines the peculiar composition of brief news items and the syntactical structure, of the sentences. The size of brief news items varies from one sentence to several (short) paragraphs. And generally, the shorter the news item, |\ the more complex its syntactical structure.following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as their grammatical parameters.

Translation of neologisms.

The English language is very rich in neologisms - the word has been created recently and perhaps will not live in the language for a long time. It is very seldom that we find equivalent for the translation of neologisms and for the most part we use descriptive translation and word-for-word translation /people of good will, top level talks.usually make out the meaning of the new words with the help of the context, but it is also necessary to take into consideration the way of their formation.

 

The frame of reference for the translation of neologisms

TypeContextual factorsTranslation proceduresExisting lexical items with new senses. Words. Collocations New forms New coinages Derived words (including blends) Abbreviations Collocations Eponyms Phrasal words Transferred words (new and old referents) Acronyms (new and old referents) Pseudo-neologisms Internationalisms1.Value and purpose of neolog 2. Importance of neolog to a) SL culture; b) TL culture; c) general 3. Recency 4. Frequency 5. Likely duration 6. Translators authority 7. Recognized translation 8. Existence of referents in TL culture 9. Transparency or opaqueness of neolog 10. Type of text 11. Readership 12. Setting 13. Fashion, clique commercial 14. Euphony 15. Is neolog likely to become internationalism? 16. Is neolog (acronym) being formed for prestige reasons? 17. Milien 18. Status and currency of neologism in SL 19. Is neolog in competition with others?Transference (with inverted commas) TL neologisms (with composites) TL derived word Naturalisation Recognised TL translation Functional term Descriptive term Literal translation Translation procedure combinations (coup lets etc.) Through-translation Internationalism

Neologisms. These are very common in newspaper vocabulary. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society, in science and technology. Hence, neologisms make their way into the language of the newspaper very easily and often even spring up on newspaper pages, e.g. lunik, a splash-down (the act of bringing a spacecraft to a water surface), a teach-in (a form of campaigning through heated political discussion), backlash or white backlash (a violent reaction of American racists to the Negroes' struggle for civil rights), frontlash (a vigorous antiracist movement), stop-go policies (contradictory, indecisive and inefficient policies).above-listed peculiarities of brief news items are the basic vocabulary parameters of English newspaper style.vocabulary of brief news items is for the most part devoid of emotional colouring. Some papers, however, especially those classed among "mass" or "popular" papers, tend to introduce emotionally coloured lexical units into essentially matter-of-fact news stories, e.g.

"Health Minister Kenneth Robinson made this shock announcement yesterday in the Commons." (Daily Mirror)

"Technicians at the space base here are now working flat out to prepare GeAiini 6 for next Monday's blast-off." (Daily Mail)<

Похожие работы

< 1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>