2.2 NEOLOGISMS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SEMANTIC AND PHONETIC FACTORS
Stephen Ullmann is the professor of the Roman languages in the University of Oxford. In his book Semantics and the Introduction to the Science of Meaning described some phonetic factors that can be seen in some marginal elements of language - neologisms, place-names, foreign words.factors - the phonetic structure of a word may give rise to emotive effects in two different ways. The first of these is onomatopoeia. Where there is an intrinsic harmony between sound and sense, this may, in suitable context, come to the fore and contribute to the expressiveness and the suggestive power of the word., for example, described the new word exactitude as a monster against which everybody protested at first, though in the end they became used to it. English words adopted into French have been subjected to a great deal of adverse criticism because of their alleged harshness: Keepsake, for instance, which was very fashionable in the early 19th century, was denounced in a magazine article as a hard word whose perilous pronunciation will prevent it from becoming popular.Italian poet Alfieri went even further: he wrote an epigram on the sonorous quality of the Italian word capitano, which was deformed and nasalised in French capitaine, and reduced to a mere captain in harsh English throats.Ullmann in his book also wrote about the loosing of emotive meaning of some words, and as an example, he took neologisms. He said that the more often we repeat an expressive term or phrase, the less effective it will be. This is particularly noticeable in the case of figurative language. When, a few years ago, the term bulge began to be used to denote an increase in the birth rate. It had the effect of an illuminating metaphor; now we are accustomed to it that we no longer visualize the image.terms are even more affected by the law of diminishing returns. We all know how quickly they go out of fashion. In our own time, modern forms of publicity and propaganda consume such words at an unprecedented rate and are constantly on the look-out for fresh alternatives: even such technical terms as supersonic have been drawn into their orbit., words may lose their evocative power as they pass from a restricted milien into common usage. When the English term sport was introduced into French in 1828, the writer who first used it was at pains to explain that the word had no equivalent in his own language. For several decades, sport remained an Anglicism of limited currency in French; as late as 1855, the purist Viennet protested against it in a poem about English words, which he read to the Institut:il, pour cimenter un merveilleux accord,Iarene en turf, et le plaisir en sport?then, the word has become part of everyday French has lost all evocative force. The same has happened to many successful neologisms. The adjective international for instance, was formed in 1780 by Jeremy Benthan who apologized for his temerity in coining a new term: The word international, it must be acknowledged, is a new one, though, it is hoped, sufficiently analogous and intelligible. Subsequently the word became an indispensable element of our political vocabulary and lost any air of neologism it may have had in Benthams day.more subtle are the movements of words up and social scale. One is quite surprised to learn that some ordinary English words such as joke or banter began their career as slang terms, and that many others - cajole, clever, fun, job, width, etc. - were stigmatized as low by Dr.Johnson., in the French la blaquer to joke, to banter is today a harmless colloquialism; yet little more than a century ago it must have had powerful social overtones.
2.3DIFFERENTIATION WITH RESPECT TO TIME AXIS OF NEOLOGISMS (BASED ON WORD-BUILDING)
The vocabulary of any language does not remain the same by changes constantly.the ever-changing field of political life and affairs new words are constantly coined. In this connection it is interesting to pay attention to the process of coining political euphemisms. Unemployment is substituted by the down-toned expressions: unused or underused manpower or redundancy. The problem of starvation is the problem of adequate nourishment, and the poor are only the underprivileged.few examples of neologisms showing the patterns according to which they are formed may be of interest. Automation automatic control of production is irregularly formed from the stem automatic - with the help of the very production suffix -tion. The corresponding verb to automated is a back-formation, e.g. to re-equip in the most modern and automated fashion. Re- is one of the most production prefixes; the others are anti-, de-, un-, the semi-affixes self- and mini- and many more. Antiflash (serving to protect the eyes) or the jocular anti-everything: She (the nurse) was anti-everything, except such of the patients who were good for a gossip (M.Dickens). Deglamorise (to make less attractive), rejuvenate (to make young again), rehouse (to move a family, a community etc. to a new house).prefix un- increases its combining power, enjoys a new wave of fashion and is now attached even to noun stem. A literary critic refers to the broken-down Entertainer (in John Osbornes play) as a contemporary unhero, the desperately unfunny Archie Rice. Unfunny here means not amusing in spite of the desire to amuse. A freer use of semi- affixes can be illustrated by mini-budget, mini-car, mini-skirt, midi-coat, midi-frock, self-service of restaurant, shop, etc. in which customers help themselves to food or goods and many more neologisms with self-.by mere juxtaposition of free forms has been a frequent pattern since the Old English period, e.g. brainstrust (a group of experts), quiz-master (chairman in competitions designed to test the knowledge of the participants). In the neologism back-room boys (men engaged in secret research) the structural cohesion of the compound is enhanced by the attribute function. Redbrick (universities), paperback (books).peculiarly English and steadily developing type is presented by nouns formed by a combined process of conversion and composition from verbs with postpositives, such as a hold up (armed robbery) from hold up (rob), fall out (airborne particles of radioactive matter), teach in (a student conference or a series of seminars on some burning issue of the day). This pattern is very frequent: read-in, sign-in, stay-in, and talk-in.technical and scientific inventions and notions are named by using the so-called combining forms, e.g. aqualung (from Latin combining from aqua and lung) - a portable diving apparatus. The change of meaning, or rather the introduction of a new, additional of a new, additional meaning, may be illustrated by the word network (a number of broadcasting station, connected for a simultaneous broadcast of the same programme). Another example is a word of American literary slang - the square. This neologism is used as a derogatory epithet for a person who plays safe, who sticks to his illusions, and thinks that only his own life embodies all decent moral values.is quite frequent, e.g. to orbit the moon, to garage a cra, to service a car.often two or more types of word-building combine in creating a neologism. Thus composition, substantiation and semantic change together are present in the personal name come back meaning a person who returns after a long absence.a general rule neologisms are at first clearly motivated. An exception is shown by those based on borrowings or learned coinages which, though motivated at an early stage, very soon being to function as indivisible signs. A good example is the much used term cybernetics (study of system of control and communication in living being and man-made devices), coined by Norbert Weiner from the Greek word kubernetes (steersman) + suffix -ics.are, however, cases when etymology is obscure, as in the noun boffin (a scientist engaged in research work) or in gimmick (a tricky device) - an American slang word that is now often used in British English. Etymology offered for the latter is only guesswork.the course of time the new word is accepted for some reason or the other and vanishes from the language. The fate of neologisms is hardly predictable, some of them are short-lived, others, on the contrary, become durable if they are liked and accepted. Once accepted, they may serve as a basis for further word-formation. Thus gimmick, gimmicky, gimmickry. Zip(an initiative word denoting a certain type of fastener) is hardly felt as new, but its derivatives, the verb to zip formed by conversion (to zip from one place to another) and the corresponding noun zipper appear to be neologisms.student of mass phenomena is naturally interested in appraising the number of units he has to deal with. It has proved no easy task. The difficulties confronting one in undertaking a word count are manifold. It is difficult to estimate the number of words in a language because of the so-called nonce-words that is words coined for one occasion. For example: I am sure I can help you publicity-wise with Beethovens birthday. After all this is really big thing. We must do whatever is best Beethovenwise. Or: Yes, I said, admiring the fishes and already getting a little whiskified (CARY). The surgeon rubbed his hands and ha-had. (M.Dickens).Huxley created very effective compound derivatives art-for-arter and trans-beasted (turned into beasts); …there was someone who could never believe that I was not an art-for-arter; as though our lives depended on getting there before the other trans-beasted passengers. And J.priestley Goes farther and derives a personal noun with the suffix -er out of a whole sentence: All they want to be is to be acquaintances, mere How-dyou-doers. Are we justified to count those as units of the vocabu