THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTANUZBEK STATE WORLD LANGUAGES UNIVERSITYENGLISH PHILOLOGY FACULTYLEXICOLOGY DEPARTMENT
QUALIFICATION PAPERIN MODERN ENGLISH
Written by the student Nosirova Aziza: Umarova M.V.
.1 Neologisms. Their meanings and division by their structure
.2 The appearance of neologisms during the English Renaissance
.3 The types of neologismsII
.1Sociolinguistic aspects of mathematical education based on neologisms
.2Neologisms from the point of view of semantic and phonetic factors
.3 Differentiation with respect to Time Axis of neologisms (based on word - building)list of the used literature
Neologisms are the main problem of modern scientific research. A lot of new objects and processes are continually created in technology. We can find new ideas and variations in social life, science. Neologisms can be defined as newly coined lexical units that acquire new sense. Peter Newmark proposed to review twelve types of neologisms and discuss the translation of particular instances by the way of the appropriate contextual factors. Every time neologisms appeared in our life. The 16th century was the period of the great course in literature called Renaissance. A lot of writers used new words in their poems and stories in order to enrich the English language. But some of neologisms are short-lived. They appeared and disappeared.
The subject matter of the qualification paper is lexical-semantic features of neologisms in modern English.
The object of the research work is the types of neologisms: the old words with new senses, derived words, abbreviations, collocations, new coinages.
The main aim of this work is to describe neologisms by their structure, to give examples of neologisms of old and new senses, to compare their meanings, to describe neologisms from the point of view of phonetic factors and semantics.
The following tasks have been solved in our qualification paper:
1.The contextual factors and comparative procedures of neologisms (all factors are in the frame of reference to compare neologisms) page 10.
.To show examples of neologisms according to their structure in some languages.
The actuality of this theme is that neologisms are very important in our life, especially now, because we have a development of science and technology, the new courses in the field of literature, art and music etc. And there are a lot of new words created in different fields. All these mean that the actuality of this theme is very important. Sometimes people even dont know the meaning of some abbreviations because they are new. Indeed, sometimes with the abbreviations such as AIDS, the unabbreviated form may be so specialized that it is unknown to most people - a point not missed by the compilers of quiz games, who regularly catch people out with a well-known abbreviations and another types of neologisms.
The result achieved and their novelty. Lexical-semantic features of neologisms in modern English, which more distinguished as the whole unit being in the mutual connection, have been studied. As the result of the investigation of patterns the new data of structural and semantic properties of the analyzed neologisms which determine the criteria of including frame groups into the microsystem have been revealed. Description of neologisms was conducted taking into account the active interaction of a person with objective reality, while word perception is connected with subjective assessment and has reflection on the language of the certain society.
The theoretical meaning. This theme is not so spread, but a lot of language scientists describe neologisms in their books. It is a very interesting theme to study. New notions come into being, requiring new words to name them. Sometimes a new is introduced for a thing or notion that continues to exist, and the older name ceases to be used. The number of words in a language is therefore not constant; the increase as a rule, more than makes up for the leak-out. It means that the vocabulary of any language does not remain the same but changes constantly.
The practical value. The theme of this qualification paper can be used as an aid for lectures of lexicology and it also can be used as a topic for discussion for students of Language Universities.
The structure of the work consists of the following parts: introduction, 2 chapters, conclusion and the list of the used literature.introduction to this work is based on the choice of this theme, the actuality of the aim and specific problems. Also considered are the theoretical meaning and the practical value of this work.first chapter shows the division of neologisms by their structure.the second chapter the appearance of neologisms during the English Renaissance is considered.the third chapter the types of the neologisms were described.forth chapter shows neologisms from the point view of semantic and phonetic factors.fifth chapter studies sociolinguistic aspects of mathematical education based on neologisms.sixth chapter studies neologisms as a word-building.conclusion generalizes all the results of the work and forms its primary conclusions.
.1 NEOLOGISMS. THEIR MEANING AND DIVISION BY THEIR STRUCTURE
Neologism - 1) The use of new words or old words with new meaning: His particular grievance was neologisms… even the newspaper, he complained, had got into the habit of using the adjective off-coloured - properly applied only to certain diamonds - to describe the pigmentation of half-caste people _New Yorker);
) New word or expression or a new meaning for an old word: Such neologisms are clipped words like lube for lubricating oil and co-ed for coeducational; back-formations like to televise (1931) from television…; artificial or made-up formations like carborundum, cellophane and pianola (Simeon Patter);
) The introduction of new view of doctrines, especially on religious subjects (The world encyclopedia).are perhaps the non-literary and the professional translators biggest problem. New object and processes are continually created in technology. New ideas and variations on feelings come from the media. Terms from the social sciences, slang, dialect coming into the mainstream of language, transferred words, make up the rest. A few years ago, three hundred new words were said to be counted in four successive numbers of the French weekly language express. It has been stated that each language acquires three thousand new words annually. In fact, neologisms cannot be quantified, since so many hover between acceptance and oblivion and many are short-lived individual creations. What is obvious is that their number is increasing steeply and as we become more language as well as self-conscious, articles, books and specialist and general dictionaries devoted to them appear more commonly. Since they usually arise first in a response to a particular need, a majority of them have a single meaning and can therefore be translated out of context, but many of them soon acquire new (and sometimes lose the old) meanings in the Target Language.can be defined as newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense. Unless they are opaque, obscure and possibly cacophonous (compare yum and yuck), neologisms usually attract and please everyone, but purists are so attached to Graeco-Latin conventions. (Once there was a fuss about oracy) that they jib at so-called violations of English grammar (who did you get it from?). Unlike the French, the English have no basis from which to attack new words. Most people like neologisms and so does the media and commercial interests exploit this liking. Multinationals with their ingenious advertising, make efforts to convert their brand names (Coke, Tipp-Ex, Tesa, Bic, Schweppes, etc.) into eponyms (i.e. any word derived from a proper noun including acronyms) and in appropriate cases you have to resist this attempt when you translate.is any word which is formed according to the productive structural patterns or borrowed from another language and felt by the speakers as something new. Example: tape-recorder, supermarket, V-day (Victory day). The research of cosmic space by the Soviet people gave birth to new words: Sputnik, spaceship, space rocket. For that period all these words were new..Buranov and A.Muminov in their book A practical course in English lexicology (1990) said that neologisms may be divided into:
) Root words: Ex: jeep - a small light motor vehicle, zebra - street crossing place etc;
) Derived words: Ex: collaborationist - one in occupied territory works helpfully with the enemy, to accessorize - to provide with dress accessories;
) Compound: Ex: air-drop, microfilm-reader.words are as a rule monosemantic. Terms, used in various fields of science and technology make the greater part of neologisms. New words belong only to the notional parts of speech: to nouns, verbs, adjectives etc.are mainly formed by:
)Word formation (mainly production types).: -gen, -ogen: carcinogen (biological term);
ics: psycholinguistics, electronics;
nik: filmnik; folknik;
) Semantic extension: heel - a tractor (old meaning