National varieties of English

Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the variety <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variety_(linguistics)> of English <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language> spoken in Canada <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada>. English is the first

National varieties of English

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Иностранные языки

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Introduction

 

The youth is not only our hope and future, but it is a decisive force of our today and tomorrow.Abduganievich KarimovRepublic pays the great attention to the education of the students of Universities ,colleges, schools.attention is paid in the republic to the improvement of educational system and training of qualified specialists. On the basis of the president's decree dated February 28, 1992, twenty-four new institutions of higher learning and their branches to train specialists for principle branches of the national economy were established. Today there are 59 institutions of higher learning function in the republic, including 16 universities, 39 teacher training institutes, medical, technical, economic, agricultural, and other institutes. About 300 thousand students master 276 specialties there. The oldest higher Institutions in Uzbekistan are the National University named after Ulugbek (in past: first - Middle Asian, than Tashkent State University), the Technical Institute ( Polytecnical Institute). Since 1991 the number of higher educational institutions has increased by 30 %. New higher educational institutions have appeared: the University of World Economy and Diplomacy, Academy of State and Public Structuring, Academy of Armed Forces, Academy of Ministry of Internal Affairs.English language is the national language of GB, USA, Australia, New Zealand .The English language is also one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization.We are learning such kind language which serves to connect people all over the world, this language is the language of the official documents of international organizations.It is the language of world famous poets,writers , beginners of the English literature.language changes ,according to the rule of the modern world. You can find different varieties of pronunciation of the English language in different parts of our planet .the pronunciation of every national variety of English has its own specific pecularities that serves to distinguish it from other varieties of English.

1. The development of American english pronunciation

development of American English on the American continent has a comparatively short history. The conditions under which it developed were peculiar and quite unlike those under which the English language developed in Great Britain.is generally assumed that American English, in its spoken form, is essentially Southern English Standard of the 17th and 18th centuries as modified locally in the course of the last century or two. The linguistic evidence for a historical connection between American speech of the North and West and that of Northern England on the one hand, and between the speech of Eastern New England and the pronunciation of the South of England on the other hand, is well supported by the history of American colonization, of the Westward movement, and of later immigration.details are complex and obscure, it is known that early settlers of New England and most of the central Atlantic coast were largely populated by people of the Southern and eastern part of England. Those who settled Pennsylvania and Southern New Jersey came from the North of England. During the first half of the 18th century a large group of Germans came to America and settled throughout Pennsylvania .A group of Welsh immigrants also settled in an area just west of Philadelphia. These settlements were supplemented by the arrival of the Scotch and Scottish-Irish whose speech was similar to that of the North of England., differences in American speech represented differences in British speech from the outset. Later settlers also reflected later usage in the British Isles.the centuries in which the migrations were moving to the west of the country, the original settlements maintained a contact with Britain which the western settlers lost. Cities of the East coast long maintained their contact with London, and the Southern gentry continued to go to England for their education. Ships which arrived in Boston and other eastern cities brought new fashions in speech from across the Atlantic. These new fashions in speech rarely reached the west.foundations of most of diversities in American pronunciation were thus laid during the colonial period. Some of the present differences in American pronunciation are attributed to that period as well.English pronunciation (AE) of today is by no means homogeneous. Variations in AE are treated by many linguists.American linguists specify the fact that the diversities in pronunciation between the various regional standards in the USA are not so marked as in Great Britain, and they tend to become levelled out.three major types of American English standard pronunciation are not equal in importance. It may be said with certainty that the pronunciation of the southern States of the United States, example, is not the pronunciation standard of American English. The Southern American pronunciation is peculiar to that part of the country only and has not spread north.speaking, there may be a question as to the priority of General American over Eastern American English. But it is an established fact that most of the typical American peculiarities of pronunciation are characteristic of both General American and Eastern American pronunciation.is the form of speech used by radio and television. It is mostly used in scientific and business discourse. It not only the most wide spread type in the USA , but like RP in Great Britain , the least regional in character and the regionally neutral variety.

 

2. Phonology

 

Compared to English as spoken in England <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language_in_England>, North American English is more homogeneous. Some distinctive accents can be found on the East Coast <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Coast_of_the_United_States> (for example, in eastern New England and New York City), partly because these areas were in close contact with England and imitated prestigious varieties of British English at a time when these were undergoing changes. In addition, many speech communities on the East Coast have existed in their present locations for centuries, while the interior of the country was settled by people from all regions of the existing United States and developed a far more generic linguistic pattern.red areas are those where non-rhotic pronunciations are found among some white people in the United States <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States>. AAVE <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American_Vernacular_English>-influenced non-rhotic pronunciations may be found among black people <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_people> throughout the country.

Most North American speech is rhotic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_and_non-rhotic_accents>, as English was in most places in the 17th century. Rhoticity was further supported by Hiberno-English <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiberno-English>, West Country English <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Country_English> and Scottish English <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_English> as well as the fact most regions of England at this time also had rhotic accents. In most varieties of North American English, the sound corresponding to the letter r is a retroflex <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retroflex_approximant> [ɻ] or alveolar approximant <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alveolar_approximant> [ɹ] rather than a trill or a tap. The loss of syllable-final r in North America is confined mostly to the accents of eastern New England <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_accent>, New York City <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York-New_Jersey_English> and surrounding areas and the coastal portions of the South <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_American_English>, and African American Vernacular English <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American_Vernacular_English>. In rural tidewater Virginia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidewater_Virginia> and eastern New England <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_England>, 'r' is non-rhotic in accented (such as "bird", "work", "first", "birthday") as well as unaccented syllables, although this is declining among the younger generation of speakers. Dropping of syllable-final r sometimes happens in natively rhotic dialects if r is located in unaccented syllables or words and the next syllable or word begins in a consonant. In England, the lost r was often changed into [ə] (schwa <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwa>), giving rise to a new class of falling diphthongs <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diphthong>. Furthermore, the er sound of fur or butter, is realized in AmE as a monophthongal <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monophthong> r-colored vowel <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-colored_vowel> (stressed [ɝ] or unstressed [ɚ] )This does not happen in the non-rhotic varieties of North American speech.other English English changes in which most North American dialects do not participate:

·The shift of /æ/ to /ɑ/ (the so-called "broad A <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broad_A>") before /f/, /s/, /θ/, /ð/, /z/, /v/ alone or preceded by a homorganic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homorganic> nasal. This is the difference between the British Received Pronunciation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Received_Pronunciation> and American pronunciation of bath and dance. In the United States, only eastern New England speakers took up this modification, although even there it is becoming increasingly rare.

·The realization of intervocalic /t/ as a glottal stop [t] (as in [bɒtəl] for bottle). This change is not universal for British English and is not considered a feature of Received Pro

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