3. the assimilation of material is directly proportional to the degree of its comprehension;
4. language is more than a system of habits which can be formed through
5. language learning is a creative process, therefore the student should
be as mentally active as possible in all assigned work:
6. a) drills and exercises should be meaningful;
b) deductive use of exercises designed to teach grammar structures (deductive explanations, i.e. rule prior to practice, starting with the rule and then offering examples to show how this rule applies);
c) rote learning is to be avoided;
d) reading and writing should be taught at early stages along with
listening and speaking;
e) occasional use of student's native language for explanation of new grammar and vocabulary is beneficial.
The cognitive principles of learning can conveniently be
summarised under three headings:
1. the need for experience;
2. the process of assimilation;
3. developmental stages.
These three principles are not only suited to adult learners but they have been readily adopted in the primary school, and the following are suggestions for practicing cognitive principles in the classroom with younger children:
a) Give experience of the language they are learning - teach them poems, rhymes, songs, tell them stories, talk to them.
b) Give them activities - painting, modeling, playing game, etc.
c) Don't stick rigidly to a predetermined language syllabus - allow the activities that take place in the class to range freely and develop naturally and let the occurrence of stimulating events that happen in the environment influence the vocabulary and structures that are introduced and practiced in each lesson.
Viewing language learning as a natural creative process rather than as habit formation, suggests that the teacher should provide guided practice in thinking in the language rather than a mere repetition drill. Such mental involvement tends to make language learning more enjoyable tor the student, - hence improved attitudes and better results.
It seems also appropriate to remind ourselves that teaching involves much more than a knowledge of methods. However well-versed a teacher may be in psychological and linguistic theories, in techniques and methodologies, his knowledge alone will not assure success. An even more basic ingredient of all good teaching is the teacher's attitude toward his students and his work.
We must recognise the teacher's compassionate, intelligent, individual approach to his work as the essential factor in successful language teaching,
To sum it up, language in CC-LT is viewed as an abstract model, governed by its own rules; language material is assimilated in blocks, not discretely i.e. in their constitutive elements; assimilation is directly proportional to comprehension; frequency of contrast is more important than frequency of repetition. According to this theory assimilation of language is achieved by conscious control over phonological, grammatical, and lexical models of a foreign language by way of conscious learning and analysis.
And, finally, practice and pedagogical experimenting shows that the priority of a certain methods is not justified. Some specialists believe that a creative synthesis of provisions of every method (eclecticism) may yield good results.
1.1.2. Current Concepts in secondary school graduates EFL
While the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to high
school graduates has its own unique terms and concepts, it often draws
from the professional vocabulary of other areas of education such as K-
12, adult basic education, and higher education. This article presents a
selection of such terms and concepts, discussing them as they are
applied in the adult ESL context and citing sources where they are
described with adult immigrant learners in mind. Some terms are broad,
representing theories or approaches, while others might be more
accurately described as methods or techniques. Most are mutually
supportive and can be integrated in instruction to expand and enrich learning in any EFL setting.
Authentic or Alternative Assessment
Authentic or alternative assessment describes efforts to document learner achievement through activities that require integration and application of knowledge and skills and are based on classroom instruction. Ideally, these assessments are relevant to real-life contexts and include activities such as creating a budget, completing a project, or participating in an interview Authentic assessments are criterion referenced, in that
criteria for successful performance are established and clearly articulated. They focus
on the learning process as well as the products and they include means for learner
self-assessment and reflection. Often, authentic assessments are used in conjunction
with standardized tests to provide a more complete picture of learner progress.
Examples of authentic assessment include performance-based assessment, learner self-assessment, and portfolios. Performance-based assessment activities require learners to integrate acquired knowledge and skills to solve realistic or authentic problems, such as taking telephone messages, completing an application, or giving directions. Self assessment refers to checklists, logs, reflective journals, or
questionnaires completed by learners that highlight their strategies, attitudes, feelings, and accomplishments throughout the learning process .
Portfolio assessment consists of a systematic collection of the learners' work (such as writing samples, journal entries, worksheets, recorded speech samples, or standardized test results) to show individual progress toward meeting instructional objectives .
Computer-Assisted Language Learning
The use of computer-based technologies for language instruction is known as computer-assisted language learning (CALL). Computer software, including multimedia applications, and the Internet and the World Wide Web are examples of such technologies at use in language programs today.
Computer technologies can provide a course of instruction, facilitate activities and tasks, or create opportunities for additional practice . CALL
can also be structured to promoted teamwork and collaboration among the learners, a necessity for those programs with limited access to technology . It can be incorporated in instruction as an integral part of a class, as an option that learners access individually, or in some combination of class-based and self-access models.
Using technology can sometimes be difficult. The planning
process should involve consideration of at least the following elements: the needs and goals of the program, instructional focus, staffing, software and hardware availability or accessibility, learners' learning goals; and learners' and staffs' experiences with and attitudes toward computer use .
Critical Literacy Theory
Critical literacy theory expands the discussion of literacy practice beyond the basic functions of reading and writing. Where traditional literacy instruction might focus on skills such as decoding, predicting, or summarizing, critical literacy theory encourages critical examination of text, especially the social, political, and ideological elements present. Based in the assumption that literacy practices have the capability to
both reflect and shape the issues and power relationships at play in the larger society, critical literacy theory seeks to empower learners through development of critical and analytical literacy skills .
In the general sense, critical literacy theory encourages teachers to create instructional activities that help learners use analytical skills to question and respond to such elements as perspective, purpose, effect, or relevance of what they read and write.
For example, a teacher might prompt learners to distinguish fact from
opinion in a newspaper editorial or to identify an author's position on a topic and compare it to their own. The focus is on the learner as decision maker and active interpreter in reading and writing activities.
Family and Intergenerational Literacy
Family literacy has traditionally described the use of literacy within the context of the family, often as related to early childhood development and parental support of children's school achievement. Intergenerational literacy broadens that description, recognizing that relationships between adults and children, both within and outside the traditional definition of the family unit, affect the literacy use and development of all involved. Family literacy programs for ESL populations generally use family and