Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of KazakhstanOf Humanity
Reportin Various Religions
Introductionof monasterygoalspurposesand monastic traditions in Eastern religionsmonasteriesmonasteriesmonasteriesmonasteriesmonasteriesof literature
main aim of this work is to define the term of monasterism, explain the differences between eremitic and cenobitic monasticism, to show how monasticism is practiced in other religions, mainly in Eastern, to describe the peculiarities, to make whole information apprehensible, systematic. In this work were used only internet sources, and from the great flood of information the most accurate and common is collected here. As a main source was chosen International World History Project Site which contains a collection of world history related essays, documents and maps. Some very helpfull ideas were taken from work on similar topic monks and monasticism. It has a good structure and briefly gives accurate description. The other source is represented by Catholic Encyclopedia. It talks a lot about monks and inner life in monastic communities, giving some interesting facts to think about. Other sources were attached only to specify certain religions aspects. This work gives the answers on the following questions: why monasticism emerged, what is it, how it is practiced, how differences in practice depend on religion.
Term of monastery
denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone (hermits).may vary greatly in size - a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only a one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, dormitory, cloister, refectory, library, balneary and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may also include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community. These may include a hospice, a school and a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge or a brewery.most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulates the sex of the inhabitants and requires them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property. The degree to which life inside a particular monastery is socially separate from the surrounding populace can also vary widely; some religious traditions mandate isolation for purposes of contemplation removed from the everyday world, in which case members of the monastic community may spend most of their time isolated even from each other. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism. Some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, and people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to almost an entire lifetime.more appropriate word for early Christian monasticism, as well as for that practiced by Eastern religions today, is asceticism. It means self-denial, and it is rooted in a negative attitude toward the world. In Christianity the ascetics looked upon the world as a source of temptation and sin. By secluding themselves from it, monks hoped to avoid harmful contacts and to concentrate their energies upon salvation alone.life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods, often agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, and by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. Monasteries have always been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities.
monks separate themselves from the world and its concerns as much as possible. They may join communities, or they may live in solitude in one place or wander around as mendicants (beggars). In either case they pursue highly individual goals. They seek to get rid of all imperfections and to reach a state of spiritual perfection. They feel that isolation from the world and its temptations aids in their quest. In Eastern religions the world and the individual ego must both be subordinated to a search for the real self. The body with its weakness for temptation and the mind clogged by ignorance are also hindrances. The means used to circumvent both the world and the ego is meditation. A Buddhist, Jaina, or Hindu monk attempts to break the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (called reincarnation) to escape to another kind of existence altogether.with meditation, many monks use mortification as a tool to reach perfection. Mortification literally means "making dead." For monasticism it refers to certain practices that de-emphasize the physical and emphasize the spiritual. Among them are fasting and punishing the body in various painful ways. Sometimes meditation is accompanied by physical exercise. Practices such as these have remained common in Central and East Asia, but they have diminished in Christianity since the end of the Middle Ages.
all monks pursue salvation by separation from the world. Some, such as the Franciscans, have combined service to the poor with their individual meditation and study. In the 20th century Mother Teresa founded an order to serve the poverty-stricken millions of India.Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, founded in the 11th century and known as the Knights Hospitalers, was probably the first order to establish genuine medical and hospital services. Members of the Teutonic Knights, founded in 1189, also trained in hospital services. In Tibet the Khamba organized themselves into a military police force for the protection of the higher clergy. has played a vital role in the creation, preservation, and transmission of culture. This was especially true of the Christian orders in the Middle Ages. Often the only literate members of society were the monks. It was they who made and transmitted written copies of the Bible and other ancient works from generation to generation. They organized some of the first libraries. Often they conducted scientific and other research to benefit the surrounding communities. They were expert farmers who were able to pass on the benefits of their expertise to peasants on the large manors.
buddhist monastery religion lamasery
Monasteries in Eastern religions
Eastern religions, especially Buddhism and Jainism, are primarily monastic. The rules for all believers are derived from the monastic rules, but the vows taken by monks are far more numerous and more intensive than those required of lay members.
famous Buddhist monasteries include:(Sravasti), Nalanda (India), Shaolin (China), Donglin Temple (Jiangxi, China), Tengboche (Nepal).more rigorous set of ethics applies to those practicing a monastic life, and the number of precepts a monastic might vow to undertake varies from one Buddhist tradition to another. Here, however, are five additional precepts that are traditionally taken by monks entering monastic life:
·Do not take food from noon to the next morning (except lemon water).
·Do not adorn the body with anything other than the monk's robe.
·Do not participate in or watch public entertainments.
·Do not use comfortable beds.
·Do not use money.monasteries, known as vihara, emerged sometime around the 4th century BC, from the practice of vassa, the retreat undertaken by Buddhist monks and nuns during the South Asian rainy season. To prevent wandering monks from disturbing new plant growth or becoming stranded in inclement weather, Buddhist monks and nuns were instructed to remain in a fixed location for the roughly three month period typically beginning in mid-July. Outside of the vassa period, monks and nuns both lived a migratory existence, wandering from town to town begging for food. These early fixed vassa retreats were held in pavilions and parks that had been donated to the sangha by wealthy supporters. Over the years, the custom of staying on property held in common by the sangha as a whole during the vassa retreat evolved into a more cenobitic lifestyle, in which monks and nuns resided year round in monasteries.India, Buddhist monasteries gradually developed into centres of learning where philosophical principles were developed and debated; this tradition is currently preserved by monastic universities of Vajrayana Buddhists, as well as religious schools and universities founded by religious orders across the Buddhist world. In modern times, living a settled life in a monastery setting has become the most common lifestyle for Buddhist monks and nuns across the globe.monasteries - most commonly