MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINEFRANKO UNIVERSITY OF LVIVOF EDUCATION
Metaphor in its Broad Perspective
Course paperby4th-year studentDoroshbyV.I.,of English
viv - 2010
Table of Contents
. Definition of Metaphor as a Figurative and Expressive Means of Language
. Types of Metaphor
. The Mechanism of Metaphor Formation
. The Difference Between Metaphor and Simile
. Metaphor in Literature and Languageof References
The theme of the given course essay is Metaphor in its Broad Perspective
The aim of the investigation is to ascertain the main types of metaphor its formation and usage. tasks of the course paper are the following:
1) to study the origin of metaphor;
) to compare the definition of metaphor represented by different scientists;
) to distinguish the main types of metaphor;
) to highlight the mechanism of metaphor formation;
) to clarify the difference between metaphor and simile;
) to provide examples of metaphor in language and literature.
The material of investigation.
For the material of investigation served essays and works of different scholars, encyclopedias, as well as various dictionaries.following methods of analysis were employed in the given investigation:
) the method of overall selection and analysis of the material;
) comparative analysis.
The structure of the course essay.
In the Introduction the brief summary of the Main Body is presented.given course essay consists of the Introduction, Main Body, Conclusions and List of References.is a stylistic device which is widely used not only by artists but as well by all those who are concerned with making their speech or piece of wrighting more impressive, remarkable and by no means unique. It is neither the invention of modern age nor of the recent centuries. It takes root in the Ancient Greece. As a matter of fact that ancient period it is thought to be the launch of its study, development and flourishing., metaphor was a Greek word meaning "transfer". The Greek etymology is from meta, implying "a change" and pherein meaning "to bear, or carry". Thus, the word metaphor itself has a metaphorical meaning in English, "a transfer of meaning from one thing to another". are broad categories of figurative language which are classified as metaphorical .The more common meaning of metaphor is a figure of speech that is used to paint one concept with the attributes normally associated with another.is present in written language back to the earliest surviving writings. From the Epic of Gilgamesh:
My friend, the swift mule, fleet wild ass of the mountain, panther of the wilderness, after we joined together and went up into the mountain, fought the Bull of Heaven and killed it, and overwhelmed Humbaba, who lived in the Cedar Forest, now what is this sleep that has seized you? [1;6]this example, the friend is compared to a mule, a wild ass, and a panther to indicate that the speaker sees traits from these animals in his friend. before this example, it is arguable that the stylized cave paintings in the Chauvet-pont-d'arc caves in southern France are a form of visual metaphor. Their highly stylized animal shapes evoke hierarchical relationships and human connections that are not part of the literal depiction. first writers to discuss metaphor were the Greek philsophers.
The greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor. It is the one thing that cannot be learned from others; it is also a sign of genius, since a good metaphor implies an eye for resemblance [23;14].this might arguably be an exaggeration, there is evidence that fundamental aspects of human intelligence, pattern recognition and inference drive the human use of metaphor.speakers as well as skilled writers have a way of using metaphors for several reasons:
) metaphors can help readers or listeners to better understand something about the object or idea to which the metaphor is being applied;
)metaphors can make speaking and writing more lively and interesting;
) metaphors can communicate a great deal of meaning with just a word or a phrase;
) metaphors, because they imply rather than directly state relationships, can get listeners and readers to think about what they are hearing or reading.
Paragraph 1 deals with the etymology and the notion of metaphor.
Paragraph 2 is about the main types of metaphor.3 provides information about the mechanism of metaphor formation.4 shows the the difference between metaphor and simile.5 deals with metaphor in literature and language.Conclusions the most important results of the overall analysis are presented.
1.Definition of Metaphor as a Figurative and Expressive Means of Language
In times of classical antiquity, when scientists only stood at the origins of the study of metaphor and knowledge of it were quite superficial, it figuratively - expressive means of language were seen as a reduction in the comparison, that is comparison of which excluded the predicates of similarity, such as "like", comparative phrases, like "if", "exact", "how" and "as if ". Thus the main comparison, their motivations, the circumstances of time and space and other modifiers are eliminated [15;81]. The term metaphor (metajorά from the Greek: metapherin- transfer) was introduced by Aristotle, metaphor was a Greek word meaning "transfer". The Greek etymology is from meta, implying "a change" and pherein meaning "to bear, or carry". In modern Greek the word metaphor also means transport or transfer. Aristotle linked this concept with the understanding of art as imitation of life.
The metaphor of Aristotle, in fact, is almost indistinguishable from the hyperbole-exaggeration of synecdoche, allegory, from a simple comparison and impersonation. In all cases, the transfer of meaning from one to another. Thus, according to the definition of Aristotle, a metaphor - nothing but "the transfer of the name or type in appearance, or type in the genus or species to species, or similar. "Lay down a good metaphor - it means to notice the similarities in the nature" [14;18]. In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two seemingly unrelated subjects. In a metaphor, a first object is described as being or precisely equal to a second object. Thus, the first object can be economically described because implicit and explicit attributes from the second object are used to enhance the description of the first. This device is exploited in literature and especially in poetry, where with few words, emotions and associations from one context can powerfully be associated with another, different subject [5;56].
In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is often seen as a basic cognitive function, that humans naturally see common traits in subjects which are factually distinct, and such behaviour may be required for comprehension and learning. Termed a conceptual metaphor, this trait is exploited in psychotherapy using a therapeutic metaphor where stories unrelated to the patient are used to teach lessons about the patient's situation. Though the word metaphor in linguistic or cognitive areas are analogies, such use falls outside the literary definition of metaphor.metaphor is, commonly, a figure of speech used to paint one concept with the attributes normally associated with another. Literal and figurative language contains several broad categories of figurative speech which are classified as metaphorical., a metaphor is defined as a way of speaking in which one thing is expressed in terms of another, whereby this bringing together throws new light on the character of what is being described [4;77].
Also, the most typical is the definition based on the contrast and comparison of metaphors: "metaphor a - kind of a trope, in which individual words or expressions converge on the similarity of their values, or by contrast, represents a dismembered comparison, in which, however, easily seen both terms. Customary as a rule the trope is formed by the principle of personification (water running), reification (nerves of steel) and so on. Also the role of metaphor can serve all parts of speech (verb, noun, adjective)[1;18]. In the opinion of V. Arnold, "a metaphor is implicit comparison that is made by using the name of one object to another and thus tapping some important feature of the second" [2;24]. In this definition, the emphasis is on the mainstreaming of one or more signs of metaphor.simple definition is that a metaphor is the understanding of one concept in terms of another, preferably when there is some similarity or correlation between the two concepts.For example, consider the sentence :
When Clair called the angry policeman a twit it just added fuel to the fire [25;65].
This employs a straightforward metaphor that compares a raging fire to the policemans anger. The point is to gain a feeling for the degree of anger by comparing it to the known behaviour of a fire that has had fuel thrown upon it (the fire flares up, as does the policemans anger).metaphor that compar