Object: This term paper was made to research the functioning and categorical value of the lexical unit «like» in modern English.
Subject: Lexical unit «like» in different types of context.purpose has determined the following tasks:
analysis of the nature of the word like;
-to describe the combinability of the word like, to find out the factors which influence on the formal and semantic variation of the word like in simple sentences, to determine semantic-syntactic potency of the word like and its functioning;
-to determine the main structural types of compound sentences with the part which are imposed by the word like;
to determine the morphological syncretism of «like» - component.
The scientific novelty of the term paper in conditioned in the following - all possible morphological-syntactic models with the word like are granted at the first time; the semantic background of the word like is revealed in the result of which the meaning of refinement is set; the functioning purpose of the word like is determined.
The theoretical value of the term paper lies in the fact that the investigation can serve to the purpose of inputting the information in certain chapters of grammar (grammatical homonymy, transposition of parts of speech). The reason for inputting the supplementary to the dictionary article is the refining meaning which was brought out of in the result of the investigation.
The practical value. The information received in the term paper can be used for the seminars and practical courses in Grammar.
The structure of the work is done in accordance with the general conceptual framework adopted. The term paper consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusions, bibliography and the list of literary sources.I of the term paper represents the theory оf usage «like» - component, different meanings, possibility to act as different part of speech, usage of «like» - constructions, semantic principles of connectivity of «like» - component in compound words.II presents the peculiarities of usage «like» - component.contain the summarizing of the results of the research.data sources which are used in the term paper are the following: R. Robbins «A time to remember», Jane Austin «Pride and Prejudice».
like speech peculiarity meaning
1. The theory of the component «like»
lot of linguists have studied peculiarities of usage the word like. According to their investigation this word has different meaning. In general like is used for:
Comparisons and to confer certain properties onto an object;
Expressing affinity, affection or another similar concept.can act as different parts of speech:
Like as preposition.
According to Longman dictionary of contemporary English, like is:
) SIMILAR for something else, or happening in the same way:hair is dark brown like mine [11; 936].club should be like a big family [11; 936].
) what is sb/sth like? Spoken when asking someone to describe or give their opinion of a person or thing:s their house like inside? [11; 936].are Dans parents like? [11; 936].
) Example:like glass, paper, and plastic can all be recycled [11; 936].
) Typical of a particular person: be like sb to do sth:s not like Steven to be late [11; 936].
) like this/that/so - spoken used when you are showing someone how to do something:have to fold the corners back, like so [11; 936].
) just like that informal if you do something just like that, you do it without thinking about it or planning it carefully:cant give up your job just like that! [11; 936]
) something like not much more or less than a particular amount:machinery alone will cost something like thirty thousand pounds [11; 936].
) nothing like BrE not at all:years ago travel was nothing like as easy as it is now [11; 936].will be nothing like enough money [11; 936].
) theres nothing like - used to say that a particular thing is very enjoyable:s nothing like a nice cup of tea [11; 936].
) more like - used when giving an amount or number that you think is closer to being right than one that has been mentioned:builders say theyll be finished in three months, but I think itll be more like six [11; 936].
) thats more like it - spoken used to say that sth is better, more correct, or more enjoyable than something else:gives us a total of 52 - thats more like it [11; 936].
) more like it - BrE spoken used when you want to change something that has been said, to make it more true:
«Poor David», she said.» Poor Harriet, more like it!» [11; 936].
) what are you like! BrE spoken informal used in a joking, friendly way, when you are surprised by what someone has just said or done:
«I think shes a lovely lady.» «What are you like!» [11; 936]
Like as verb.
1) Think sth is nice to enjoy sth or think that it is nice or good:
I like your jacket [11; 936].do you like living in London? [11; 936]
) Like a person to think that someone is nice or enjoy being with them:
Youll like my brother [11; 936].
) Approve of sth to approve of something and think that it is good or right:
I dont like the way he shouts at the children [11; 936].
) Do sth regularly to try to do sth regularly or make sth happen regularly: like to do sth:like to get up early and get a bit of work done before breakfast [11; 936].sb to do sth:like our students to take part in college sports activities [11; 936].
Like as a noun.
1) sbs likes and dislikes - the things that someone likes and does not like:all have our own likes and dislikes when it comes to food [11; 936].
) and the like/and such like and similar things:, policemen, and the like were all called in to help with the emergency [11; 936].
) the likes of sb/sm - spoken) used to talk about someone you do not like or do not approve of:dont want you spending time with the likes of him [11; 936].) used to talk about people of a particular type:is collected through the likes of the FBI, CIA, and Scotland Yard [11; 936].
) the like of sb/sth also sths like - formal something similar to someone or a particular person or thing, or of equal importance or value:will be a show the like of which has never been seen before [11; 936].
Like as adverb.
1) used in speech to fill a pause while you are thinking what to say next:water was, like, really cold [11; 936].was just, like, standing there [11; 936].
) Im/hes/shes like…) used to tell the exact words someone used:asked Dave if he wanted to go, and hes like, no way! [11; 936]) used to describe an event, feeling, or person, when it is difficult to describe or when you use a noise instead of words:was like, huh? (= she did not understand) [11; 936].
) as like as not/like enough BrE probably:ambulance will be too late, as like as not [11; 936].
Like as conjunction.
1) in the same way as. Some people consider this use to be incorrect:one else can score goals like he can! [11; 936]t talk to me like you talk to a child [11; 936].
) like I say/said - spoken used when you are repeating sth that you have already said:I said, I dont mind helping out on the day [11; 936].
) informal as if. Some people think that this use is not correct English:looked at me like I was mad [11; 936].
Like as adjective (only before noun) formal
) similar in some way:second dispute was sorted out in a like manner [11; 936].get on well together because they are of the like mind [11; 936].
) be like to do sth. - old use to be likely to do sth
like used after a noun to say that something is similar to or typical of the noun:jelly-like substance, childlike simplicity, ladylike behaviour [11; 936].
) the degree to which something can reasonably be expected to happen; probability:a seatbelt will reduce the likelihood of serious injury in a car accident [11; 936].
) in all likelihood almost certainly:I refused, it would in all likelihood mean Id lose my job [11; 936].
Morphological syncretism of «like» component
According to Cambridge English Grammar, like is used when we compare one thing or person with another. The word like means similar to something, the same.dog is very intelligent. It is like a human [2; 55].is raining again. I hate weather like this [2; 55].is a prepositions why it is followed by noun, pronoun, or - ing.can also say like (someone / something) - ing.sound like a baby crying [2; 55]., would like with infinitive. In infinitive constructions like is followed by ing form.dont like people shouting at me [2; 56].matter how we say - I like doing or I like to do:like getting up early orlike to get up early [2; 56].we use I like doing when like means «enjoy».you like cooking? (= do you enjoy it?) [2; 56]dont like driving. (= I dont enjoy it?) [2; 56].like doesnt mean enjoy we use I like to do. I like to do something.mean that to do something will be right [16; 754].like to wash my hair twice a week. (But it doesnt mean that I like to do it but it is necessary to do it) [2; 57].likes to do washing-up immediately after the meal [2; 57].it is said in Murphy English Grammar, the construction would like is followed by infinitive:would like to be rich [7; 634].you like to come to the party? [7; 634]is the difference between I like and I would like.would like is polite way to say I