Intonation system of English in the process of historical development

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guistic function has been thoroughly described. Though speech timbre definitely conveys certain shades of attitudinal or emotional meaning there is no good reason to consider it alongside with the three prosodic components of intonation, i. e. pitch, loudness and tempo.. Sokolova and others write that the term prosody embraces the three prosodic components and substitutes the term intonation. It is widely used in linguistic literature, it causes no misunderstanding and, consequently, it is more adequate. They feel strongly that this term would be more suitable for their book too, but, unfortunately, it has not been accepted in the teaching process yet.foreign scholars (A. Gimson, R. Kingdon) restrict the formal definition of intonation to pitch movement alone, though occasionally allowing in variations of loudness as well. According to D. Crystal, the most important prosodic effects are those conveyed by the linguistic use of pitch movement, or melody. It is clearly not possible to restrict the term intonation by the pitch parameters only because generally all the three prosodic parameters function as a whole though in many cases the priority of the pitch parameter is quite no general agreement about either the number or the headings of the functions of intonation which can be illustrated by the difference in the approach to the subject by some prominent Russian phoneticians. T. M. Nikolayeva names three functions of intonation: delimitating, integrating and semantic. L. K. Tseplitis suggests the semantic, syntactic and stylistic functions the former being the primary and the two latter being the secondary functions. N. V. Cheremisina singles out the following main functions of intonation: communicative, distinctive (or phonological), delimitating, expressive, appellative, aesthetic, integrating. Other Russian and foreign phoneticians also display some difference in heading the linguistic functions of intonation.. Crystal distinguishes the following functions of intonation.functions most obvious role is to express attitudinal meaning - sarcasm, surprise, reserve, impatience, delight, shock, anger, interest, and thousands of other semantic nuances.function helps to identify grammatical structure in speech, performing a role similar to punctuation. Units such as clause and sentence often depend on intonation for their spoken identity, and several specific contrasts, such as question/statement, make systematic use of it.function helps draw attention to what meaning is given and what is new in an utterance. The word carrying the most prominent tone in a contour signals the part of an utterance that the speaker is treating as new information.function helps larger units of meaning than the sentence to contrast and cohere. In radio news-reading, paragraphs of information can be shaped through the use of pitch. In sports commentary, changes in prosody reflect the progress of the action.function helps us to organize speech into units that are easier to perceive and memorize. Most people would find a sequence of numbers, for example, difficult to recall. The task is made easier by using intonation to chunk the sequence into two units.function, along with other prosodic features, is an important marker of personal or social identity. Lawyers, preachers, newscasters, sports commentators, army sergeants, and several other occupations are readily identified through their distinctive prosody.



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Appendix 1


In a statement, the intonation falls on the last syllable of a sentence.




There is a similar pattern in an information (WH) question; these structures are identified by both the question word that starts the sentence and by the intonation pattern.



An information question contrasts with a yes/no" question in which the intonation rises on the final syllable.



In a series, the first item (s) has rising intonation and the last one has falling intonation.



Appendix 2


The three RP vowels [], [],. [] correspond to only two vowels in GA - [a] and []. This combined with the articulatory differences between RP {d] and GA [a] and a difference in vowel distribution in many sets of words makes it very complicated. The following chart vividly shows it:


RPGADad [] [] dog [] [a] path [] [] dance [] [] half [] []

Appendix 3


Many differences involve the pronunciation of individual words or groups of words. Here are some of these:


RPGAAsia [] [] cordial [] [] either [] [] leisure [] [] lever [] [] schedule [] [] shone [] [] tomato [] [] vase [] []